: To conform to their culture's rules and their caregiver's rules about when and how different emotions should be expressed. Infants must develop strategies for the processes involved in initiating, maintaining, and altering emotional responses and most importantly to keep themselves from being overwhelmed by their emotions 1. Konrad Lorenz: Showed that imprinting is automatic; Groundbreaking ethologist Konrad Lorenz (1937) observed imprinting in young goslings and noted that it is automatic, it occurs only within a critical period shortly after the bird has hatched, and it is irreversible— once the gosling begins to follow a particular object, whether its mother or Lorenz, it will remain attached to that object. The imprinting response is considered a prime example of a species-specific and largely innate behavior that has evolved because it has survival value . 2. John Bowlby: o Attachment Theory: An emotional tie with another person. Shown in young children by seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation An attachment figure serves as a secure base for exploration Affects emotional & cognitive development o Basis: Genes (baby's temperament) Baby's temperament: In born personality
Reactive, difficult vs. relaxed, cheerful Environment (parental style) Synchronous, responsive Impatient, unresponsive Neglect, abuse 3. Mary Ainsworth: o Strange situation test: Asses the quality of attachment bond 1. Harry Harlow: contact comfort (cloth monkey vs. wire monkey) 2.What did the turkey video we saw in class illustrate? Attachment and imprinting (the guy hatched the eggs and raised the turkey as if he was their mother) 3. What did Harry Harlow’s studies show? Harlow's research demonstrated that contact comfort , the pleasurable tactile sensations provided by a soft and cuddly "parent," is a more powerful contributor to attachment in monkeys than feeding or the reduction of hunger. Contact comfort also promotes human attachments 4.What is ‘contact comfort’? the pleasurable tactile sensations provided by a soft and cuddly "parent," 1. Attachment: A strong affectional tie that binds a person to an intimate companion. It is also a behavioral system through which humans regulate their emotional distress when under threat and achieve security by seeking proximity to another person. 2. Separation anxiety: One form of fear is separation anxiety: once attached to a parent, a baby often becomes wary or fretful when separated from that parent. Separation anxiety normally appears when infants are forming their first genuine attachments, peaks between 14 and 18 months, and gradually becomes less frequent and less intense 3. Stranger anxiety: A second fearful response that often emerges shortly after an infant becomes attached to someone is stranger anxiety: a wary or fretful reaction to the approach of an unfamiliar person). Anxious reactions to strangers often mixed with signs of interest become common between 8 and 10 months , continue through the first year, and gradually decline in intensity over the second year.
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 65 pages?
- Spring '08