Certainly there was no shortage of 239 The Hwarang Segi Manuscripts 238 KOREA

Certainly there was no shortage of 239 the hwarang

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Certainly there was no shortage of 239 The Hwarang Segi Manuscripts 238 KOREA JOURNAL / AUTUMN 2005 22. The two most important early contributors to the study of Korean hyangga ( sae- naen norae ) are Ogura Shimpei (1882-1944), who initiated the study of early Kore- an poetry in his Chosen gogaku shi (History of the Korean Classical Language, 1964) and Kyoka oyobi rito no kenkyu (A Study of Classical Language and Idu , 1929); and Yang Ju-dong (1942/1954). 23. See, for instance, Yi S. (1974/1999, 19-24). 24. For a list of all the secondary studies on the hwarang completed between 1928 and 1986 see Choe J. (1996, 52-54). 25. See, for example, the historical novel by the prolific poet, novelist, and literary critic Woltan Bak Jong-hwa (1959, 1960), which was originally serialized in the Chosun Ilbo in 1959. It tells the story of the decline of the Unified Silla kingdom the collection of handwritten, hand-copied books which bore such titles as Jimagi (Record of Silla King Jima, r. 112-34), Ilseonggi (Record of Silla King Ilseong, r. 134-54), Wihwa Jin-gyeong (True Book of Wihwa), Eulbul daewangjeon (Biography of Great King Eul- bul), Sosurimwang gi (Record of King Sosurim), Chumogyeong (Mir- ror of Chumo), Anjang daejegi (Book of Great Emperor Anjang), Anwon daejegi (Book of Great Emperor Anwon). There were also other more familiar sounding writings such as a Goryeosa yeoljeon (Biographies from the History of Goryeo), as well as a Gangyeok gaeron (Outline for Strengthening the Country) written in the Korean phonetic alphabet with mixed Sino-Korean characters ( gukhanmun ) inscribed with “written by Bak Chang-hwa” on the binding. Although Noh perused them only for a few hours it seemed apparent that many were fictional writings and novellas written by Bak. The Wihwa Jin-gyeong was most interesting to Noh because the book seemed to be associated with the early hwarang Wihwa. The term jin-gyeong (Ch. zhenjing ) suggests Daoist influence, as it is a term commonly used to denote Daoist scriptures since the early Tang dur- ing the seventh century. 19 Regardless, what makes these other books important is the context they provide for the putative Hwarang segi . 20 Seen in this light, Noh Tae Don concludes that the calligraphic manu- script of the Hwarang segi was composed by Bak as fiction sometime between 1930 and 1945. 21 I would refine Noh’s assessment by sug- gesting that the Hwarang segi manuscripts are drafts of a historical fiction that was a work-in-progress during the colonial period but was abandoned sometime prior to Korea’s liberation from Japanese rule in 1945. 19. The term zhenjing first came into use in the Sui-Tang period as a means of creat- ing respectable status for texts associated with the Daoist church and soon there- after became the common term for referring to Daoist scriptures. The term was subsequently adopted for the titles of scriptures found in the Daoist canon. For instance, the official name for the Zhuangzi is the Nanhua zhenjing . See Suishu 35:1093, and Jiutangshu 9:215.

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