Certainly there was no shortage of239The Hwarang Segi Manuscripts238KOREA JOURNAL / AUTUMN 200522. The two most important early contributors to the study of Korean hyangga(sae-naen norae) are Ogura Shimpei (1882-1944), who initiated the study of early Kore-an poetry in his Chosen gogaku shi(History of the Korean Classical Language,1964) and Kyoka oyobi rito no kenkyu(A Study of Classical Language and Idu,1929); and Yang Ju-dong (1942/1954).23.See, for instance, Yi S. (1974/1999, 19-24).24.For a list of all the secondary studies on the hwarang completed between 1928 and1986 see Choe J. (1996, 52-54).25. See, for example, the historical novel by the prolific poet, novelist, and literarycritic Woltan Bak Jong-hwa (1959, 1960), which was originally serialized in theChosun Ilbo in 1959. It tells the story of the decline of the Unified Silla kingdomthe collection of handwritten, hand-copied books which bore suchtitles as Jimagi(Record of Silla King Jima, r. 112-34), Ilseonggi(Record of Silla King Ilseong, r. 134-54), Wihwa Jin-gyeong(TrueBook of Wihwa), Eulbul daewangjeon(Biography of Great King Eul-bul), Sosurimwang gi(Record of King Sosurim), Chumogyeong (Mir-ror of Chumo), Anjang daejegi(Book of Great Emperor Anjang),Anwon daejegi (Book of Great Emperor Anwon). There were alsoother more familiar sounding writings such as aGoryeosa yeoljeon(Biographies from the History of Goryeo), as well as a Gangyeokgaeron(Outline for Strengthening the Country) written in the Koreanphonetic alphabet with mixed Sino-Korean characters (gukhanmun)inscribed with “written by Bak Chang-hwa” on the binding. AlthoughNoh perused them only for a few hours it seemed apparent thatmany were fictional writings and novellas written by Bak. TheWihwa Jin-gyeongwas most interesting to Noh because the bookseemed to be associated with the early hwarang Wihwa. The termjin-gyeong(Ch. zhenjing) suggests Daoist influence, as it is a termcommonly used to denote Daoist scriptures since the early Tang dur-ing the seventh century.19Regardless, what makes these other booksimportant is the context they provide for the putative Hwarang segi.20Seen in this light, Noh Tae Don concludes that the calligraphic manu-script of the Hwarang segiwas composed by Bak as fiction sometimebetween 1930 and 1945.21I would refine Noh’s assessment by sug-gesting that the Hwarang segimanuscripts are drafts of a historicalfiction that was a work-in-progress during the colonial period butwas abandoned sometime prior to Korea’s liberation from Japaneserule in 1945. 19. The term zhenjingfirst came into use in the Sui-Tang period as a means of creat-ing respectable status for texts associated with the Daoist church and soon there-after became the common term for referring to Daoist scriptures. The term wassubsequently adopted for the titles of scriptures found in the Daoist canon. Forinstance, the official name for the Zhuangziis the Nanhua zhenjing. See Suishu35:1093, and Jiutangshu9:215.