adjust to new social situations and environments Successful Aging : “Maintaining one’s physical health, mental abilities, social competence, and overall satisfaction with life as one gets older .” Death Stages of Coming to Terms with Death: studied by Kubler-Ross 1. Denial: shock or disbelief at knowledge of illness 2. Anger: resent those that are young and healthy 3. Bargaining: individual may try to ask God for health in return for “good behavior” 4. Depression: feel sense of loss for past and future situations 5. Acceptance: no longer fear or struggle with death
Chapter 11 Personality : a person’s characteristic patterns of behaving, thinking, and feeling Affected by trait approach- suggest people repeat similar behavior in varying situations PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORIES Freud’s 3 levels of consciousness (all 3 interact) Conscious : whatever we are aware of at the moment Preconsciousness : things that are not consciously thinking about but might be easily brought to memory Unconsciousness : memories that are so unpleasant the mind repressed them, “involuntarily removed them from consciousness” Primary motivating force of human behavior Id, Ego, Superego (3 systems of personality) Id - part of personality present at birth = inherited, primitive, inaccessible, and completely unconscious *Acts on pleasure principle which seeks instant pleasure and avoids pain Ego - the most rational and realistic part of the personality *Acts on reality principle, decides what is appropriate or needed vs what is desired Superego : has two moral components: 1) parts for which one has been punished 2) behaviors for which one has been rewarded * seeks moral perfection Defense Mechanism : technique used to fight against anxiety and to maintain self-esteem Repression : removing painful thoughts or memories from the conscious *type of defense mechanism PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT
Psychosexual Stages : stages through which sexual instincts develops Erogenous Zone : part of the body that provides pleasurable sensation and conflict *if conflict goes unsolved, a child may develop a fixation Fixation : “Arrested development at a psychosexual stage” because of too much pleasure or frustration at that stage Oedipus/ Elektra Complex : conflict in which a child develops a sexual attraction to and seeks attention of opposite sex parent and becomes hostile towards same sex parent Usually results in child repressing feelings for opposite sex parent and developing mannerisms of same sex parent (=development of Superego)
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