L evel 5 e vi d e n ce s ys t e m a t ic r evie w of

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L evel 5 E vi d e n ce S ys t e m a t ic R evie w of D esc r i pt ive a nd Q u ali t a t ive S tud ies : S ee bo x to the l eft fo r m o r e i nfo rm at i on about sys te m at ic r e vi e ws . L evel 6 E vi d e n ce S i ng le d esc r i pt ive o r qu ali t a t ive s tud y Q u ali t a t ive r esea r c h : m ethod that sys te m at ic a lly e x a mi ne s a pheno m enon u si ng an i ndu c t iv e app r oa c h & e x p l o r at i on of m ean i ng of pheno m enon; pu r po s e is to unde rs tand & de scri be hu m an e x pe ri en c e, e x p l o r e m ean i ng s & patte r n s ; data a r e often na rr at iv e. L evel 7 E vi d e n ce E x p e r t op i n i on: R e c o mm endat i on s f r o m pe rs on s wi th e s tab lis hed e x pe r t is e i n a s pe ci f ic cli n ic a l a r ea often ba s ed on cli n ic a l e x pe ri en c e; not c on si de r ed a r e s ea rc h m ethod be c au s e sys te m at ic ( o r cri t ic a l) i nqu iry is l a ck i ng. Th e level of evi d e n ce of sys t e m a t ic r evie w s a nd m e t a - a n alyses d e p e nd s on th e t y p es of s tud ies r evie w e d . S ys t e m a t ic R evie w : A s u mm a ry of e vi den c e, t y p ic a lly c ondu c ted b y an e x pe r t o r e x pe r t pane l on a pa r t ic u l a r top ic , that u s e s a ri go r ou s p r o c e ss ( to mi n imiz e b i a s) fo r i dent i f yi ng, app r a isi ng, and sy nthe sizi ng s tud i e s to an sw e r a s pe ci f ic cli n ic a l que s t i on and d r a w c on cl u si on s about the data gathe r ed. M e t a -An alysis : A p r o c e ss of u si ng quant i tat iv e m ethod s to s u mm a riz e the r e s u l t s f r o m m u l t i p l e s tud i e s , obta i ned and cri t ic a lly r e vi e w ed u si ng a ri go r ou s p r o c e ss ( to mi n imiz e b i a s) fo r i dent i f yi ng, app r a isi ng, and sy nthe sizi ng s tud i e s to an sw e r a s pe ci f ic que s t i on and d r a w c on cl u si on s about the data gathe r ed. T he pu r po s e of th is p r o c e ss is to ga i n a s u mm a ry s tat is t ic (i .e., a m ea s u r e of a si ng l e effe c t ) that r ep r e s ent s the effe c t of the i nte rv ent i on a cr o ss m u l t i p l e s tud i e s .

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