100%(2)2 out of 2 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 29 - 31 out of 65 pages.
oKnow Edward Thorndike & the Law of Effect; B. F. Skinner (see p. 21 & charton p. 24) and Operant Conditioning; the Skinner box, shaping, reinforcement (positive & negative), punishment (positive & negative), continuous reinforcement, partial reinforcement, reinforcement schedules (ratio, interval, fixed, variable) –what is the typical responding patternof individuals on each schedule of reinforcement?Edward ThorndikeLaw of Effect- the behavioral response is affected by the consequence of that behavior Behavior changes because of its consequences Trial and error learning results in some behaviors (those followed by good consequences) being “stamped in”, while others (those who followed by discomfort or unpleasant consequences) are stamped out Rewarded behavior is likely to reoccur Continuous reinforcementReinforcing every responseRapid acquisition- increases numbers of responses are made and less time is taken between responses (positively accelerated)Use when first learning new behavior Partial reinforcementReinforcing only some of responses Use to maintain behavior (prevents extinction)Reinforcement schedules Ratio- (number) dependent on amount of work Fixed- set number of responsesPunch card Variable- unpredictable number of responses Slot machines Interval- (time) dependent on amount of time that has passed (and a response being made)Fixed- time period Pay dayScalloping with post-reinforcement pause Variable- varying time period Pop quiz Slow steady responding oWhat are some punishment guidelines, what does the text say about physicalpunishment (p. 462-463), time-out. Give examples of applications of learning theory: token economy, behavior modification, ABA, systematic desensitization. Punishment guidelinesASAPIntensity
ConsistentlyBe otherwise warmExplain yourself (induction)Reinforce alternate behaviorAlternative responses: time outRephrase positivelyBehavior Modification- applying operant principles to changing specific behaviorsApplied Behavior Analysis (ABA)- intense, systematicIdentifyBehavior to be targeted Environmental conditions contributing to behavior Obtain baselineDo a functional analysis Develop a treatment planReassess for effectivenessAutism example Systematic desensitization: progressively overcoming phobias oWhat is the Premack Principle? Albert Bandura (p. 22 & lecture) & observational learning, the social cognitive model and reciprocal determinism. Premack principle- one activity (something you like doing) can act as a reinforce for another activity(Albert Bandura) BoBo doll Cognitive/Observational learning Social-Cognitive theoryAlbert BanduraWe learn by observing, then imitating othersoKnow the BoBo doll, modeling, vicarious reinforcement, vicarious punishment, latent learning?