o Know Edward Thorndike the Law of Effect B F Skinner see p 21 chart on p 24

O know edward thorndike the law of effect b f skinner

  • Baylor University
  • PSY 3341
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o Know Edward Thorndike & the Law of Effect; B. F. Skinner (see p. 21 & chart on p. 24) and Operant Conditioning; the Skinner box, shaping, reinforcement (positive & negative), punishment (positive & negative), continuous reinforcement, partial reinforcement, reinforcement schedules (ratio, interval, fixed, variable) –what is the typical responding pattern of individuals on each schedule of reinforcement? Edward Thorndike Law of Effect - the behavioral response is affected by the consequence of that behavior Behavior changes because of its consequences Trial and error learning results in some behaviors (those followed by good consequences) being “stamped in”, while others (those who followed by discomfort or unpleasant consequences) are stamped out Rewarded behavior is likely to reoccur Continuous reinforcement Reinforcing every response Rapid acquisition - increases numbers of responses are made and less time is taken between responses (positively accelerated) Use when first learning new behavior Partial reinforcement Reinforcing only some of responses Use to maintain behavior (prevents extinction) Reinforcement schedules Ratio- (number) dependent on amount of work Fixed- set number of responses Punch card Variable- unpredictable number of responses Slot machines Interval- (time) dependent on amount of time that has passed (and a response being made) Fixed- time period Pay day Scalloping with post-reinforcement pause Variable- varying time period Pop quiz Slow steady responding o What are some punishment guidelines, what does the text say about physical punishment (p. 462-463), time-out. Give examples of applications of learning theory: token economy, behavior modification, ABA, systematic desensitization. Punishment guidelines ASAP Intensity
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Consistently Be otherwise warm Explain yourself (induction) Reinforce alternate behavior Alternative responses: time out Rephrase positively Behavior Modification - applying operant principles to changing specific behaviors Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) - intense, systematic Identify Behavior to be targeted Environmental conditions contributing to behavior Obtain baseline Do a functional analysis Develop a treatment plan Reassess for effectiveness Autism example Systematic desensitization : progressively overcoming phobias o What is the Premack Principle? Albert Bandura (p. 22 & lecture) & observational learning, the social cognitive model and reciprocal determinism. Premack principle - one activity (something you like doing) can act as a reinforce for another activity (Albert Bandura) BoBo doll Cognitive/Observational learning Social-Cognitive theory Albert Bandura We learn by observing, then imitating others o Know the BoBo doll, modeling, vicarious reinforcement, vicarious punishment, latent learning?
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