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1.self-efficacy/competence (internal self confidence) 2.difficult goals 3.high levels of valence, instrumentality, & expectancy 4.perception of equalitymotivation strong positive relationship with job performance equality moderate positive relationship with organizational commitment compensation: individual focus (piece-rate, merit pay, lump sum bonus, recognition award) / unit focus (gainsharing) / organization focus (profit sharing)
JUSTICE: reflects the perceived fairness of an authority’s decision makingdistributive justice: reflects the perceived fairness of decision-making outcomes are pay, rewards, evaluations, promotions, and work assignments allocated using proper norms? procedural justice: reflects the perceived fairness of decision making processes while adhering to rules… voice: where employees can express their opinions and views during the course of decision making correct-ability: employees have a chance to request an appeal when a procedure seems to have worked ineffectively consistency, bias suppression, representativeness, & accuracy: help ensure that procedures are neutral and objective, as opposed to biased and discriminatory interpersonal justice: reflects the perceived fairness of the treatment received from authorities while adhering to rules… respect: authorities treat employees in a dignified and sincere manner propriety: authorities refrain from making improper or offensive remarks when taken to the extremes, interpersonally unjust actions create abusive supervision: sustained display of verbal and nonverbal behaviors, excluding physical contact informational justice: reflects the perceived fairness of the communications provided from authorities while adhering to rules… justification: authorities explain decision-making procedures and outcomes in a comprehensive and reasonable manner truthfulness: honest and candid communication ETHICS: reflects the degree to which the behaviors of an authority are in accordance with generally accepted moral norms —an individual’s personal beliefs regarding what is right/wrong or good/bad whistle-blowingoccurs when employees expose illegal or immoral actions by their employer (“…or tolerate those who do.”) individual factors and structural factors influence… moral awareness: authority recognizes that a moral issue exists in a situation or that an ethical code or principle is relevant to the circumstance moral intensity captures the degree to which the issue has ethical urgency moral attentivenesscaptures the degree to which people chronically perceive and consider issues of morality during their experiences moral judgment: the process people use to determine whether a particular course of action is ethical or unethical cognitive moral development theoryargues that as people age and mature, they move through several stages of moral development being moral development at pre-conventional stage: right vs wrong is viewed in terms of the consequences of various actions as people mature, their moral judgment reach the conventional stage: right vs. wrong is