f. 95 Theses on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences a. Indulgences was the big thing that sparked he writing of the theses. b. Challenged the teaching of the roman catholic church (nature of penance) c. Challenged the authority of the pope i. Lutherans don’t have a rep on god on earth. d. Usefulness of indulgences. g. Mini state of Saxony had a duke—and hammers his theses on the door of the dukes castle. 1. Many things sprung off of Luther like different protestant sec. h. Spread of his theses i. Was more successful than his forerunners invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg. ii. Translated into German so the average person could read it. i. Five Solas i. Sola dife: by faith alone ii. Sola Scriptura: scripture alone iii. Solus Christus: chirst alone iv. Sola gratia: by grace alone v. Soli deo Gloria: glory to god alone. vi. (focus on only god and his word). j. Reactions: i. Pope excommunicated him ii. Charles the V 1. Diet of Worms a. Assembly of all the electors of the Holy Roman Empire, Luther is invited to talk to him.
b. Luther was asked to recant, but he said that he “will cannot and will not recant anything, for to go against conscience is neither right nor sae. Here I stand. I can do no other. God help me. Amen” c. He was declared an Outcast by the emperor. i. Which meant that he had no rights/protection. ii. Was a sure thing that he would be killed. k. Luther died of a natural death. i. Saved by the secular ruler of his small secular state. 1. Frederick III (Frederick of wise) 2. Was one of the few that said that he agreed with protestant beliefs. 3. He kidnaps Luther, hides him in Watburg Castle in Saxony to hide him and keep him safe. a. Known as “Junker Jorg” while living there. ii. While Luther was in captivity the protestant religion continued to move. 1. He translated the New Testament from Latin into German in 11 weeks, so that a broader audience could read the bible and reach their own salvation. l. Luther drops Celibacy for priests. m. Luther marries Katharina Von Bora and has children i. He eventually dies, and in Wittenberg now the doors of the castle have the 95 theses carved on the doors. ii. He is buried in the church at Wittenberg. III. Political consequences of the protestant reformation a. Luther ignited issues that would go on for 100 years after his death. b. His theses lead to a change in political status quo in the holy roman empire i. Not only is it politically fragmented, but now its religiously fragmented as well, and will ignite fighting. c. Many wars fought in HRE all for or against empire/Rome. IV. Peace of Augsburg 1555 a. Eventually the HRE finally stops fighting over religion. b. Officially religious wars over. c. What happened? i. Cuius regio, eius religio he who rules, his religion. ii. Ruling power in the mini-states decides his states’ religion. iii. This did not solve the problem---Catholics didn’t win the wars. iv. But this just appeased the problem.
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