social activity then their children may drink more than other children whose parents do not have the same view. Also, when younger girls have relationships with older guys, they tend to partake in drinking sooner due to pressures of being accepted and cool. They are also more likely to participate in juvenile behaviors. Children who have a close bond with their parents tend to have less alcohol related illness and addictions. Safer alcohol use in adolescents has been linked to them simply having more conversations about alcohol regardless of the message content. When conversations about alcohol are held constantly the more information gets out there allowing adolescents to be aware and use alcohol less dangerously. However, children are more likely to start drinking early on when parents don’t caution them about alcohol use. (Reimuller, Hussong, & Ennett, 2011). In society today, television, radio, billboards, and the Internet progressively promote alcohol and alcohol is widely available. These ad’s show drinking as a positive thing and when youth see these types of advertisements, they find them desirable. It then influences youth to want to purchase and participate with the products that are advertised. These positive views then lead to underage drinking (Kaufmann, Chen, Crum, & Mojtabai, 2014). When drinking starts in adolescents it begins to cause potential health risks. Once youth begin drinking heavy the chances of those harmful risks increases even more and can lead to lifelong illness or death. This issue is a concern in public health because many adolescents are dying or developing ill-nesses and alcoholism at a young age. Many Americans that began alcohol use in adolescents are suffering long-term effects in the future. Some of these effects are the brain, liver, growth, and endocrine effects. Scientists have examined and are currently examining more to find out just how alcohol affects the developing brain. Alcohol abuse has a significant impact on long-term
8EFFECTS OF UNDERAGE DRINKINGthinking and memory skills. Since adolescent brains are still maturing, they have a higher risk fordeveloping issues (Reimuller, 2011).In some young drinkers there have been Elevated liver enzymes found that shows some degree of liver damage in that young drinker. When a young drinker is overweight or obese their bodies showed elevated liver enzymes even with moderate levels of drinking. Indicating that adolescences are at risk for developing liver issues. Increased sexual hormones and hormonal changes happen during puberty. These hormones start to increase the production of other hormones and growth factors and these are vital for normal organ development. Organs, muscles,and bones require critical hormone balance and when adolescents drink during this period or rapid growth it greatly effect this development. Therefore, it is important for researchers to identify risk and protective processes that influence adolescent alcohol use so that effective interventions and health policy can be developed (Reimuller, 2011).
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