Boss Tweed of New York’s Tammany Hall political machine f. The “Tweed Ring” defrauded New York City of millions of dollars until it was exposed by reporter Thomas Nast 4. Many government positions, such as tax collectors or post office officials, were appointed as rewards for loyalty to a political party (called patronage ) 5. Congress passed the Pendleton Act in 1883 that created merit -based exams for most civil service jobs in the federal government 6. In the Gilded Age, presidents were seen as less powerful than monopolists like Carnegie, JP Morgan, and Rockefeller a. Grant was the most important president of the era, but his administration was plagued by scandals b. The worst scandal was Credit Mobilier which involved bribes by railroad companies to gain lands grants c. Whiskey Ring involved companies bribing government officials to avoid paying taxes F. Leisure Time 1. What was leisure time in the Gilded Age? 2. While working and living conditions were difficult for poor immigrants, middle class Americans actually saw their work time decrease 3. Many middle-class Americans fought off city congestion and their jobs by enjoying amusement parks, bicycling, vaudeville theater (variety shows), and sports such as baseball and boxing II. Conclusions A. During the Gilded Age, the United States was a land of opportunity 1. The industrial revolution created jobs in Eastern factories 2. Millions of “ new immigrants ” swarmed to the U.S. from Eastern and Southern Europe, swelling American cities 3. The influx of urban workers helped boom industry and modernized cities, but also led to terrible working and living conditions, child labor, nativism towards immigrants
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- Summer '18