Not due to ability or environmental demands • Performance =ƒ(Ability x Motivation) Know implications from all theories Maslow & ERG Maslow’s Need Hierarchy : • Prepotency- We move up in an order—once one need is met you move to the next (self-actualization is top of the pyramid) • Maslow (a humanist)- 5 levels of “needs” (need=when its unmet it drives our behavior) 1. Physiological Needs 2. Safety Needs 3. Social Needs (connection to others) 4. Esteem Needs 5. Self-Actualization (totally aware of who you are—driven primarily by principle) ERG : • Growth Needs (self-actualization and esteem) • Relatedness Needs (belongingness) • Existence Needs (physiological and safety) Growth Needs Relatedness Needs Existence Needs **Frustration Regression : Being unhappy/frustrated in one level will drop you to a lower level (i.e. a break-up binge) McClelland’s Needs (and TAT) Tests: • Achievement : Need to compete toward a certain standard of excellence. • Affiliation : Need to be liked and stay on good terms with others (goes with agreeableness) • Power : Need to influence people and events o Personal Power o Institutional Power o Often narcissists Herzberg Two Factor Theory (satisfiers and motivators) 1. Motivators/Satisfiers a. Achievement b. Recognition c. Responsibility d. Opportunity to advance
e. Nature of work f. Personal growth 2. Hygiene Factors/Dis-satisfiers a. Technical supervision b. Policies c. Status d. Security • Both: Salary and interpersonal relationships Expectancy Theory : • A “within person” theory • MF = E x Σ(I x V) • MF = Motivational Force to Perform • E = Expectancy or subjective probability that effort will lead to performance. • I = Instrumentality, or the subjective probability that a given level of performance will lead to certain outcomes. • V= Valence, or the anticipated satisfaction with those outcomes (most important) • Best thought of as a within person theory • If any of the three components is zero – there is no motivational force. • Valence has been shown to be the most important single factor, but all three work best when considered together. • Doesn’t hold so true for people high on Concern for Others. • Implications : In order to motivate people… o People must believe that effort will lead to performance o People must believe that performance will lead to outcomes o And People must anticipate that they will be satisfied with those outcomes. Equity Theory (plus distributive and interpersonal justice) • Inequity exists when we experience either more or less than others. • Motivation is based on reducing the inequity. • Inequity leads to : o Increase or decrease one’s own outputs o Change one’s own outcomes o Distort perceptions of one’s own inputs and outcomes. o Distort the inputs or outcomes of comparison other.
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- Spring '13