Not due to ability or environmental demands Performance \u0192Ability x Motivation

Not due to ability or environmental demands

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Not due to ability or environmental demands Performance =ƒ(Ability x Motivation) Know implications from all theories Maslow & ERG Maslow’s Need Hierarchy : Prepotency- We move up in an order—once one need is met you move to the next (self-actualization is top of the pyramid) Maslow (a humanist)- 5 levels of “needs” (need=when its unmet it drives our behavior) 1. Physiological Needs 2. Safety Needs 3. Social Needs (connection to others) 4. Esteem Needs 5. Self-Actualization (totally aware of who you are—driven primarily by principle) ERG : Growth Needs (self-actualization and esteem) Relatedness Needs (belongingness) Existence Needs (physiological and safety) Growth Needs Relatedness Needs Existence Needs **Frustration Regression : Being unhappy/frustrated in one level will drop you to a lower level (i.e. a break-up binge) McClelland’s Needs (and TAT) Tests: Achievement : Need to compete toward a certain standard of excellence. Affiliation : Need to be liked and stay on good terms with others (goes with agreeableness) Power : Need to influence people and events o Personal Power o Institutional Power o Often narcissists Herzberg Two Factor Theory (satisfiers and motivators) 1. Motivators/Satisfiers a. Achievement b. Recognition c. Responsibility d. Opportunity to advance
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e. Nature of work f. Personal growth 2. Hygiene Factors/Dis-satisfiers a. Technical supervision b. Policies c. Status d. Security Both: Salary and interpersonal relationships Expectancy Theory : A “within person” theory MF = E x Σ(I x V) MF = Motivational Force to Perform E = Expectancy or subjective probability that effort will lead to performance. I = Instrumentality, or the subjective probability that a given level of performance will lead to certain outcomes. V= Valence, or the anticipated satisfaction with those outcomes (most important) Best thought of as a within person theory If any of the three components is zero – there is no motivational force. Valence has been shown to be the most important single factor, but all three work best when considered together. Doesn’t hold so true for people high on Concern for Others. Implications : In order to motivate people… o People must believe that effort will lead to performance o People must believe that performance will lead to outcomes o And People must anticipate that they will be satisfied with those outcomes. Equity Theory (plus distributive and interpersonal justice) Inequity exists when we experience either more or less than others. Motivation is based on reducing the inequity. Inequity leads to : o Increase or decrease one’s own outputs o Change one’s own outcomes o Distort perceptions of one’s own inputs and outcomes. o Distort the inputs or outcomes of comparison other.
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