Q3 Lab#7 Glucosamine HALF.docx

11 biphenyl 4 carboxylic acid however was more

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[1,1’-biphenyl]-4-carboxylic acid, however, was more clearly seen in the analysis of the NMR. The multiplicities and coupling of the 1 HNMR spectrum helped confirm the structure of the product. At hydrogen A, B, C, and D, there were integration values of 2H with A/B being doublets and C/D being doublet of doublets. This supports the coupling of the aromatic rings, which is also proven through their respective chemical shifts. Furthermore, the triplet of triplets at hydrogen e with an integration of 1H acts as the fifth magnetically nonequivalent hydrogen that confirms the reaction. Including the hydrogen from the OH, the integration values for the NMR added up to the 10 hydrogen’s present in [1,1’-biphenyl]-4-carboxylic acid. 1 Finally, the literature melting point for [1,1’-biphenyl]-4-carboxylic acid is 222-225 ° C, while the observed melting point is 227-229 ° C.  The close resemblance assesses the purity and finalizes the identity of the product as [1,1’-biphenyl]-4-carboxylic acid.  The final percent yield after recrystallization is 264%. No side products were observed in the reaction. However, due to the polarity of the carboxylic acid, the product still had methanol and water attached as shown in the NMR. Specifically, the 1 H NMR shows the methanol peak at 3.47
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ppm and the water peak at 2.00 ppm, which would’ve increased the yield as shown in the results. Therefore, if
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