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sometimes reversible, pallor pain, redness, discomfort, frozen skin becomes white or yellowish with waxy texture, no sensation to pain, partial skin freezing, full thickness skin freezing, gangrene with loss of tissueFlash freeze: rapid cooling w/ intracellular ice crystals contact w/ cold metals or volatile liquids-Hematology (Ch. 20-22): 17 QuestionsoHigh Iron Foods (refer to link)oSickle Cell Disease: production of abnormal hemoglobin S (Hb S) within erythrocytes, genetic mutation in which 1 amino acid (valine) replaces another (glutamic acid), inherited autosomal recessive disorder, lifelong, India, Africa, Mediterranean, do not appear until infant in 6 months, Hb F decreases, Hb S increases, infection is common cause of death, sepsis and meningitis Pathophysiology: soluble, polymers transform RBC into sickle shape (depends on oxygen, pH, dehydration), 15 mm Hg, plug blood vessels, increased viscosity of the blood, slow circulation, vascular occlusion, pain and organ infraction, blood pool in spleen, infarction of splenic vessels, erythropoiesis in marrow or liver (severe cases), increased plasma osmolality, decreased plasma volume and low environment temperatureHemolytic Anemia: deoxygenated and dehydration causes solidification and stretching of erythrocytes into elongated sickle shapeSickle Cell Anemia: homozygous form, most severeSickle Cell Thalassemia (mildest form, little hemoglobin, less likely to occlude)and Sickle cell Hb C disease (vasooclussive cries, hematocrit values and
oAnemia (Table 21-1, page 514),Classifications, what do cells look like? signs and symptoms, Pathophysiology: oGender (M/F): blood loss causes include, use of medication for GI bleeding, surgical procedure that decreases stomach acidity, transit time