The Causes of ADHD: Biological Contributions Genetic contributions o ADHD seems to run in families, multiple genes contribute to it o DAT 1 (dopamine transporter gene) Methylphenidate (Ritalin- one of the most common drugs to treat ADHD) inhibits this gene and increases the amount of dopamine available Neurobiological contributions o Smaller brain volume o Abnormal frontal lobe development and functioning More complex: reduced grey matter in SMC for boys and girls but other areas vary by sex The role of toxins o No evidence that allergens and food additives are causes o Maternal smoking increases risk
Mutation involving the dopamine system (DAT 1 genotype) were more likely to show symptoms of ADHD if mothers smoked during pregnancy The Causes of ADHD: Psychosocial Contributions Psychosocial factors o Can influence the nature of ADHD o ADHD children are often viewed negatively by others o Constant negative feedback from peers and adults o Peer rejection and resulting social isolation o Such factors foster low self-esteem Biological Treatment of ADHD Goal of biological treatments o To reduce impulsivity and hyperactivity and to improve attention Stimulant medications o Reduce core symptoms in 70% of cases o EX: Ritalin, Dexedrine Effects of medications o Improve compliance and decrease negative behaviors o Reinforce brain’s ability to focus attention during tasks o Do not affect learning and academic performance Newer evidence refutes this notion o Benefits are not lasting following discontinuation Behavioral and Combined Treatment of ADHD Behavioral treatment o Reinforcement programs To increase appropriate behaviors Decrease inappropriate behaviors o May also involve parent training o Social skills training- teach kids to interact with pears appropriately Combined bio-psycho-social treatment o Highly recommended o Superior to medication or behavioral treatments alone Alternative Treatment Transcendental meditation- calms children Neurofeedback- computer game, brain waves represented as different colored spaceships, electrodes sense when a person is relaxed/focused and the green spaceship speeds up and passes the spaceships that represent when he’s tired/tense Cannabis- use is high with those diagnosed with ADHD
Chapter 14 The beginning of Legal Intervention The divergent interest between researcher/practitioner and participants/clients o EX: Tuskegee Experiment/video Result is PL 93-348 o Formation of IRBs o Belmont principles Respect for persons Beneficence Justice Duty to Warn/Protect (Tarasoff case) Poddar was a student from Bengal, India He entered the University of California, Berkeley as a graduate student in September 1967 Met Tarasoff in 1968 and she rebuffed his advances, put him in emotional crises Seen by Dr. Moore at mental hospital, confided that he intended to kill Tarasoff Dr. Moore warned campus PD and had him detained, Poddar was released A few months later killed Tarasoff (October 27, 1969) Tarasoff’s family sued Dr. Moore and UC Berkley
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