Many popular instruments parallel self rating and

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Many popular instruments parallel self-rating and informant-rating versions Relatively easy to convert a self-report measure for informant ratings Valuable when self-reports are impossible to collect or when validity is questioned There are multiple advantages to informant ratings (1) Informants are not subject to bias seen in self-reports (2) Good level of validity related to important life outcomes There are a few limitations to informant ratings (1) Amount of relevant info that is available – lack access to thoughts & feelings (2) Subject to the reference group effect (3) Some studies have individuals choose their informants o Informants may produce favorable personality ratings if they like the person o Tendency to give unrealistic positive ratings is letter of recommendation effect There are at least 2 important dimensions on which personality tests differ o (1) Extent that instrument seeks to assess personality in comprehensive manner o (2) Personality characteristics can be classified at different levels of breadth or generality Some approaches are based on belief that important thoughts and feelings operate outside conscious awareness o Projective hypothesis – if a person is asked to describe or interpret ambiguous stimuli, their responses will be influenced by nonconscious needs, feelings, and experiences o Projective tests are cumbersome and labor intensive to administer Biggest challenge for projective tests – find a reliable and valid scheme to score generated responses Implicit tests – based on assumption that people form implicit or automatic associations btwn concepts based on their previous experience and behavior Behavioral measures – only approach that assesses what people DO rather than what people think or feel
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