Additionally the second chance act could eventually

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). Additionally, the Second Chance Act could eventually save American taxpayers millions of dollars by reducing recidivism rates and consequently lowering arrest and incarceration rates. Currently, the annual cost of incarcerating a prisoner exceeds $20,000, a number that increased sixfold between 1982 and 2002. Former senator and current vice president Joe Biden, co-sponsor of the act, stated that it is “a relatively modest investment in offender reentry efforts [that] compares very well with the alternative—building more prisons for these ex-offenders to return to if they are unable to successfully reenter their communities. An ounce of prevention, as they say, is worth a pound of cure” ( Press release, 2007 ). Furthermore, the Second Chance Act encourages collaboration of the criminal justice, public health, and social service systems to allow access to resources and opportunities to promote successful reentry. The partnership of these systems will continue to reduce recidivism by providing tools to address multifaceted issues, such as drug abuse and mental health issues. Additionally, the act calls for services such as public assistance, public housing, health and mental services, education, and job training; which are all associated with preventing further recidivism and allowing for a smoother transition back into society ( Pogorzelski, Blitz, Pan, & Wolff, 2005 ; Wilkinson & Rhine, 2005 ). Additionally, O'Hear (2007) points out that grant recipients are required to “develop a reentry strategic plan not only containing measurable performance outcomes, but must have a 50 percent reduction in recidivism rates over five years” (p. 76). Similarly, performance levels are measurable through increased employment, education, and housing opportunities to offenders who are released back into the community. “In short, the Second Chance Act repudiates the notion that recidivism reduction is best achieved through deterrent threats alone and calls for the delivery of services to former prisoners, not in a minimal or grudging way but in a systematic, proactive fashion” ( O'Hear, 2007 , p. 76). The Second Chance Act is a reentry movement that could be classified as having a “harm-reductionist flavor e.g., therapeutic jurisprudence, restorative justice, and, to some extent, victim's rights” ( O'Hear, 2007 , p. 77). In other words, O'Hear suggests that the Second Chance Act could weaken legalism's hold on penal law and policy. He states that such legalism has consisted of astonishing harshness in sentencing and a tendency to view offenders as “undifferentiated, willful lawbreakers” and not as “individual human beings with unique needs and limitations” ( O'Hear, 2007 , p. 77). These problems do not disappear while offenders are in prison. The Second Chance Act provides for programs and services that will aid in rehabilitation efforts and encourage positive participation in society upon release. In addition, the act eliminates what Travis (2005) calls “invisible punishments” that continue to alienate the prisoner from his or her community by

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