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15 16 Heart and Circulation III and IV

Transport across capillary wall determinants of net

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Transport Across Capillary Wall
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Determinants of Net Filtration Pressure Along a Capillary
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Fluid Filtration and Absorption Along Capillary Length Length of Capillary Arteriole Venule Net Colloid Osmotic Pressure Net Capillary Blood Pressure Filtration Reabsorption 20 mmHg 30 mmHg 10 mmHg
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Effects of Arteriolar Vasodilation or Vasoconstriction on Capillary Blood Pressure
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Net Capillary Filtration and Lymphatics Net Capillary Filtration : Net capillary filtration for a normal individual is ~ 2 ml/min Lymphatics : Carries capillary filtrate back to the venous system via the right lymphatic duct and thoracic duct Regulation of Capillary Hydrostatic Pressure : Dependent on blood volume - e.g. fluid retention in heart failure Regulation of Colloid Osmotic Pressure : Dependent on plasma protein concentration - e.g. lower in protein starvation Regulation of Filtration Coefficient : Dependent on endothelial barrier function - e.g. higher in allergic reactions
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The Lymphatic System
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The Lymphatic Network Lymphatic Capillaries : The lymphatic system originates in the tissue as blind-ended, highly permeable, lymphatic capillaries Lymphatic Valves : All lymph channels have valves, which ensure unidirectional flow Muscle Pumping : Contractions of lymph vessels and muscular compression drive lymph flow into the circulation
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Veins - Function as Volume Reservoir Veins serve as source and sink to the circulatory system. Exercise : Muscle pumping increases venous return, ventricular filling, and cardiac output. Orthostatic Hypotension : Standing for a long time can lead to venous pooling, decreases in circulating blood volume and cardiac output.
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Gravity and Venous Pooling
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Skeletal Muscle Contraction Pumps Venous Return to the Heart Blood Flow Toward Heart Skeletal Muscle Contraction Valve Open Valve Closed
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Major Determinants of Venous Return Sympathetic Activity to Veins Skeletal Muscle Pump Blood Volume Inspiration Movements Venous Pressure Venous Return Atrial Pressure End-Diastolic Ventricular Volume Stroke Volume
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Fainting is A Physiological Response Note : Never hold a fainting person in an upright position. A fainting person should be allowed to lie down to restore venous return to the circulation. Lying down restores circulating blood volume and blood flow to the brain
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