o Abdicates responsibility, delays decisions, gives no feedback, and makes little effort to help followers satisfy their needs Bennis and Nanus identified four common strategies used by leaders in transforming organizations: 1. Clear vision – of the future state of their organizations 2. Social architects – created a shape or form for shared meaning people maintained within their org’s 3. Trust – make their own positions clearly known and standing by them 4. Creative development of self through positive self regard Kouzes and Posner – 5 fundamental practices that enable leaders to get extraordinary things accomplished: 1. Model the way 2. Inspire a shared vision 3. Challenge the process 4. Enable others to act 5. Encourage the heart HOW DOES THE TRANSFORMATIONAL APPROACH WORK? Transformational leaders set out to empower followers and nurture them in change Strong role models w highly developed set of moral values and self determined sense of identity
STRENGTHS Widely researched from many different perspectives Has intuitive appeal Treats leadership as a process that occurs between followers and leaders Provides a broader view of leadership that augments other leadership models Substantial evidence that it is an effective form of leadership CRITICISMS Lacks conceptual clarity – covers a wide range of activities and characteristics How transformational leadership is measured – validity of MLQ Transformational leadership treats leadership as a personality trait or personal predisposition rather than a behavior people can learn Researchers have not established that transformational leaders are actually able to transform individuals and organizations Elitist and antidemocratic Has the potential to be abused Provides a general way of thinking about leadership that emphasizes ideals, inspiration, innovations and individual concerns CHAPTER 10 Servant leadership: emphasizes that leaders be attentive to the concerns of their followers, empathize with them and nurture them Servant leaders put followers first Begins with the natural feeling that one wants to serve – servant leaders place the good of followers over their own self interests and empathize follower development Greenleag coined the term servant leadership o He states that a servant leader has a social responsibility to be concerned about the have nots and those less privileged o If inequalities and social injustices exist, a servant leader tries to remove them TEN CHARACTERISTICS OF A SERVANT LEADER 1. Listening: 2. Empathy 3. Healing 4. Awareness 5. Persuasion 6. Conceptualization 7. Foresight 8. Stewardship
9. Commitment to the growth of people 10. Building community Other conceptualizations of servant leadership have emerged from researchers efforts to develop and validate instruments to measure the core dimensions of the servant leadership process MODEL OF SERVANT LEADERSHIP 1. Antecedent conditions a.
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- Fall '13