means that any system is at the same time a sub system of some wider system and

Means that any system is at the same time a sub

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means that any system is at the same time a sub-system of some wider system and is itself a wider system to its sub-systems. Holon A constructed system, of interest to one or more people, used in a process of inquiry; a term suggested to avoid confusion with the everyday use of the word 'system', as in e.g. 'transport system' (used synonymously with 'system of interest'). Measure of performance The criteria against which the system is judged to have achieved its purpose. Data collected according to measures of performance are used to modify the interactions within the system. Mess A mess is a set of conditions that produces dissatisfaction. It can be conceptualized as a system of problems or opportunities; a problem or an opportunity is an ultimate element abstracted from a mess. Monitoring and control Data collected and decisions taken in relation to measures of performance are monitored and controlled and action is taken through some avenue of management. Networks An elaboration of the concept of hierarchy which avoids the human projection of 'above' and 'below' and recognizes an assemblage of entities in relationship, e.g. organisms in an ecosystem. Open system A system which is open to its environment such that there are recognizable inputs to the system and outputs to the environment, e.g. an organism is an open system for inputs of food (energy).
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