Implementation of the Brown decision was slow at first When the 1964 Civil

Implementation of the brown decision was slow at

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Implementation of the Browndecision was slow at first. When the 1964 Civil Rights Act passed, withholding federal funding from districts that were not desegregating, its pace picked up. In 1988, integration reached its peak, with almost 45% of Black students in the South attending majority-White schools. In the 1980s and ’90s, however, federal courts rolled back desegregation plans, arguing they were never intended to be permanent and allowing districts more control over school enrollment. By 2011, only 23% of Black students in the South attended majority-White schools. In fact, segregation has been on the rise across the country, undoing much of the progress that occurred in the 1970s and ’80s.18Measuring segregation levels is complicated, but one method is to look at the number of schools that are “intensely segregated” (schools in which 90-100% of students are Black or Latino). In
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Sociology of Education (Fall 2020 Edition)Page 201988, at the peak of integration, 5.7% of schools in the U.S. were in this category. By 2016, this number had more than tripled, to 18.2%.19With the National Guard protecting them from angry mobs, nine African American students, known as the Little Rock Nine, attempt to integrate Central High School in Arkansas in 1957. (Source: New York Public Library, Digital Collection)This is unfortunate, because decades of research have shown that, while segregated schools have a negative impact on all students (and especially students of color), everyonedoes better when schools are integrated. Black students who attend integrated schools have higher test scores, stay in school longer, and do better in the workforce than students in segregated schools.20In fact, the achievement gap has a great deal to do with segregation: the gap in test scores between White and Black students declined steadily in the 1970s and was smallest in the 1980s, at the height of integration. Since then, progress in shrinking the gap has slowed. Yet the academic performance of White students does not decline in integrated settings, and research has shown that going to an integrated school makes allstudents less prejudiced, more open-minded, and more comfortable in diverse settings.Often when people talk about school segregation, they are referring to Blacks and Whites. However, Latinos have also been heavily segregated in U.S. schools, especially in the Southwest, where
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Sociology of Education (Fall 2020 Edition)Page 21some districts ran separate schools. As the Latino population in the U.S. has grown, the clustering of Latinos in particular areas (and the decline in the number of Whites in those areas) has led to increased residential segregation. This, in turn, creates de factoschool segregation. By 2014, Latino students were more segregated than Black or Asian students.In 2017, 58% of African-American children in the U.S. attended schools that were at least three-fourths Black or Latino. (Source)Schools with large numbers of Black and Latino students are also more likely to have large numbers of low-income students, a pattern known as double segregation. The rise of high-poverty,
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