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As Alzheimer's disease progresses to its last stages, brain changes begin to affect physical functions, such as swallowing, balance, and bowel and bladder control. These effects can increase vulnerability to additional health problems such as: aspirating into the lungs (Arcangelo, Peterson, Wilbur, & Reinhold, 2017).These diseases causes degeneration of brain tissue and nerve cells and it becomes harder for the brain to communicate with the body and function properly(Huether & McCance, 2017).Functional alterations such as activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living are also decreased(Arcangelo, Peterson, Wilbur, &Reinhold, 2017).Structure and functional alterations
Neuromuscular SystemPeople with advanced Alzheimer disease lose the ability to use their muscles in purposeful ways(Barbe, Morrone, Wolak-Thierry, Jolly & Novella, 2015). Patients with late-stage disease typically lose their ability to walk. And maintain.(Barbe, Morrone, Wolak-Thierry, Jolly & Novella, 2015)The muscles become rigid as control of the neuromuscular system diminishes. Accidental injuries are common with Alzheimer disease.(Barbe, Morrone, Wolak-Thierry, Jolly & Novella, 2015)CNSAlzheimer disease is principally a disease of the central nervous system, which includes the brain and spinal cord(Huether & McCance, 2017).dead brain cells, progressively accumulate in the brain tissue. The loss of brain fx tissue that happens with Alzheimer disease initially causes problems with memory and learning. Eventually leading to decline in intellectual function, personality and mood changes and balance can be affected. (Alzheimer’s Association, 2019).Structure and functional Alterations
Digestive SystemImpaired senses and bowel control is an adverse effect. Bowel incontinence is associated in advanced AD patients. altered gut bacteria-reduced microbial diversity (.Alzheimer’s Association, 2019).Structure and functional Alterations
Age-The greatest known risk factor for Alzheimer’s is increasing age, but Alzheimer's is not a normal part of aging( Alzheimer’s Association, 2019).