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Segmented neutrophil nucleus has 2 to 5 lobes and are

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Segmented Neutrophil —nucleus has 2 to 5 lobes and are connected by thin strands. They are found in bone marrow (storage pools), marginating, and circulating peripheral blood 50- 70%. Performs phagocytosis (larger material) and pinocytosis (smaller material) this takes place in the blood stream, transient bacteremia, or the tissues. Eosinophils —spend less than one week in the peripheral blood (less than 5%), but large storage capacity in the marrow that allows for rapid mobilization on demand. They are stimulated by allergens or parasites. The nucleus is in band form or bilobed and the cell is slightly larger than a neutrophil and may have an irregular border due to motility, and pink or red stained cytoplasm. Basophil —large heavily stained granules, irregular and unevenly distributed through out the cell and turn deep purple to black when stained. Least common in peripheral blood (1%). Immune response cell, histamine is released. Mast Cell —tissue equivalent of the circulating basophil, involved in inflammation and initiate localized and system anaphylaxis. Monocytes -- phagocytic cells. The nucleus is indented or curved with chromatin that is lacy with small clumps, and vacuoles are common. Largest cell in the peripheral blood (less than 15%) Monocytes can mature into macrophages that are more phagocytic and are released into tissues. Lymphocytes —natural killer cells found in the peripheral blood. Regulates immune function. Cell size ranges from small, medium, to large. Have a round dense nucleus with
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skimpy cytoplasm. 2. Define the term cluster of differentiation (CD) Cluster of Differentiation —a protocol used for the identification and investigation of cell surface molecules present on white blood cells. CD molecules can act in numerous ways, often acting as receptors. 3. Describe the process of leukopoiesis naming and diagramming all stages of development. Granulocyte Maturation—starts with CD 34 stem cell marker Neutrophilic, eosinophilic, or basophilic myeloblast. Myeloblast—more nucleus and cytoplasm, very visible golgi, the nucleus is oval with nucleolus, and blue cytoplasm. Progranulocyte or promyelocyte—may have nucleolus smaller than myeloblast, nucleus is smaller and lighter. Primary granules and golgi are visible. Neutrophilic myelocyte—neutral color granules, dawning of neutraphilia (pink area around golgi), clumped nuclear chromatin and nucleoli are no longer visible, nucleus is round to oval with a flattened side. Neutrophillic metamyelocyte-- nucleus becomes indented, primary and secondary granules. Neutrophillic Band-- band shaped nucleus. Segmented Neutrophil--nucleus has thin strands of membrane and heterohromatin from into segments and create a lobed nucleus. Neutrophil Maturation-- Pluripotential Stem Cell-->Myeloid Stem cell-->CFU-GEMM-->CFU-GM-->Myeloblast-- >Promyelocyte->Neutraphilc Myelocyte-->Neutraphilic Metamyelocyte-->Neutraphilic Band-->Segmented Neutrophil Eosinophil Maturation Pluripotential Stem Cell--> Myeloid Stem Cell-->CFU-GEMM-->CFU-Eo-->Myeloblast-- >Promyelocyte-->Eosinophilc Myelocyte-->Eosinophilic Metamyelocyte-->Eosiniphilic Band-->Eosinophil Basophil Maturation Pluripotential Stem Cell-->Myeloid Stem Cell-->CFU-GEMM-->CFU-BASO--
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