2.1.3 Pentachlorobenzene within the scope of the UNECE Protocol The Executive Body of the UNECE LRTAP Convention mandated that draft amendments to the POPs protocol to be negotiated including the options of listing PeCB in either Annex I or Annexes I and III 2 . The decision to negotiate for either Annex I or Annexes I and III was based on the fact that commercial production of PeCB within the UNECE region had stopped many years ago. It was concluded that quintozene was still used worldwide, but that it was unclear if PeCB was used in the manufacturing process. It was expected that: 1. inclusion of PeCB in Annex I would not require additional management actions nor additional cost as industry had already replaced PeCB, 2. PeCB emissions related to quintozene would phase out with time, and 3. releases from PCB containing equipment were already covered by the measures taken for PCBs. No additional management actions for by-product formation in thermal processes were expected as the measures to control PCDD/Fs would also lead to a reduction in the emissions of PeCB. The UNECE indicated that no information was available on costs and impacts of emission reduction addressing residential/domestic combustions sources such as barrel burning. Costs within the UNECE region for State budgets were expected to be negligible and no price increases for consumers were expected (UNECE 2008). 2.2 Intentional point sources 2.2.1 Identification of possible control measures Intentional anthropogenic sources mentioned in the risk profile are PeCB as a component in PCB products, in dyestuff carriers, as a fungicide and a flame retardant and as a chemical intermediate e.g. for the production of quintozene. Most applications seem to have ceased. The applications in dye carriers have been discontinued in Canada (Environment Canada, 2005). PeCB may have been used in the past as a fungicide and as a flame retardant. There is no indication that PeCB is still used for these applications. The use in PCB- applications (dielectric fluids, heat transfer equipment) declined considerably in the last decades. All the members of ICCA/WCC/EuroChlor have stopped production and marketing of PCBs. PeCB nowadays is not used anymore for this purpose. Release from historical use, stockpiles and waste is unknown. Actions taken to eliminate the use of PCBs will subsequently eliminate any related PeCB emissions (UNEP, 2007). To limit the possible application for the production of quintozene and prevent re-introduction of other intentional uses, and to reduce or eliminate releases from stockpiles and wastes, listing of PeCB in Annex A without any specific exemptions could be the primary control measure for intentional sources under the Convention. 2.2.2 Efficacy and efficiency of possible control measures in meeting risk reduction goals Except for quintozene production for which the information does not allow a straightforward conclusion to be drawn on a global scale, no remaining uses have been identified.
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- Fall '13