The following standard measurements were taken 1 Strength of grip a without

The following standard measurements were taken 1

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The following standard measurements were taken: 1. Strength of grip a. without support of the extremity, b. with support; i.e., with the arm or elbow resting on t table or close to the body. 2. Strength of chuck pinch (three-digit pinch). 3. Strength of pulp pinch for each separate digit (11,111, IV, V) wi thumb. 4. Strength of lateral pinch (between digits I and 11). Originally each of the strength tests was given three times. Howeve the first attempt was usually the strongest, and repeated testing prove to be unnecessary in a cooperative person. This was given consideratio in this study. The various measurements were performed at short inter vals and a control series was done on the same person several days later 146
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Swanson et al.: Strength of the Hand STRENGTH OF GRIP The adjustable handle of the Jamar hydraulic dynamometer was spaced at 2% in. (Fig. lb). Most subjects were comfortable at this breadth of grip and could apply maximal force when tested. The minimal and maximal strengths of grip measured in the male group ranged from 30.4 to 70.4 kg. and 14.0 to 38.6 kg. in the female group. Table 1 shows the average strength of grip for each group studied. The skilled and sedentary males recorded very similar figures and the forces recorded by the manual workers were not significantly higher. Taken separately, manual workers recorded the highest figures, 56.1 kg. for the major hand and 49.3 kg. for the minor one. Variations in the force of grip according to age are seen in Table 2. The male group showed rather constant TABLE 1.-Average Strength Grip (Unsupported) Listed by Occupation (100 Subjects) TABLE 2.-Average Strength of Grip Listed by Age (100 Subjects) Occupation Skilled Sedentary Manual Average Unsupported Grip, kg. 20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 Male hand Grip, kg. Female hand Major 47.0 47.2 48.5 47.6 Major 26.8 23.1 24.2 24.6 Minor 45.4 44.1 44.6 45.0 Male hand Minor 24.4 21.1 22.0 22.4 Female hand Major 45.2 48.5 49.2 49.0 45.9 Major 23.8 24.6 30.8 23.4 22.3 Minor -- 42.6 46.2 44.5 47.3 43.5 Minor 22.8 22.7 28.0 21.5 18.2
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Bulletin of Prosthetics Research-Fall 1970 strength between the ages of 20 and 50 years. In the female maximal strength was recorded between the ages of 30 and The grip was found to be weaker when the extremity was supp The average figure for the supported extremity in the male grou 44.7 kg. for the major and 41.7 kg. for the minor hand. The f group registered 22.3 kg. and 20.1 kg. respectively for the su extremities. This reduction could be explained by the fact t of the strength was lost in stabilizing the extremity. PREFERRED PINCH Several small objects such as coins, screws, buttons, and keys picked up by any method desired. The type of pinch preferred by individual to obtain his maximum strength was noted. The gras patterns employed could be classified in five categories: 1. Pinch simultaneous action of digits I, 11, and I11 (chuck pinch) was sele by 44 percent of the subjects for the major hand and 49 percent the minor hand (Fig. 2a). 2. Simultaneous action of digits I and I1 used in 29 percent of the major hands and 25 percent of the minor o 3. A third variety of pinch using digits I and I1 initially and includ digit I11
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  • Fall '12
  • MichaelMisovich
  • Hand strength, pinch, Chuck Pinch

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