Philosophy Discussion Day 8

An action is right in the case that it promotes the

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An action is right in the case that it promotes the move overall  happiness o Examines each particular situation on its own merits Rule utilitarian o Following rules tend to promote the most overall happiness o Doesn’t look at each particular action o Looks at the type of action o You shouldn’t do it even if in that particular situation it would promote  the most overall happiness to break that rule o They come up with a set of rules and say you can’t violate those set of  rules ever o Rule worship The whole point of being a utilitarian is the belief that  consequences are all that matter Question 11 2 main differences between higher and lower pleasures o 1. Higher and lower pleasures don’t just differ in quantity, they differ in  quality No amount of a lower pleasure could ever make up for any  amount of loss of a higher pleasure o 2. Which kinds of things tend to produce the higher and lower  pleasures Things that engage our rational faculties are higher pleasures Anything that you have to use your brain for Utilitarians say you are supposed to maximize pleasure ß
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Doesn’t respect our humanity o Give us a moral theory to act like animals o Mill believes that we do have a theory that respects human beings  because of the presence of higher pleasures Trying to respond to the rejection against Bentham that seeking  to maximize pleasure is the highest goods o Mill believes that you should strive for lower pleasures, Higher pleasures are better than the lower pleasures and you  should strive for higher pleasures, but you should still strive for  lower pleasures Question 12 1. Utilitarianism is true if and only if happiness is the only thing desirable for  its own sake o Seeks to prove that happiness is the only thing that is desirable in its  own sake; and in that case, utilitarianism is true 2. The only proof of desirability is desire 3. People desire their own happiness for its own sake 4. Happiness as such is desired for its own sake from the point of view of  humanity o Making a claim about humanity in general   5. So, happiness is desirable for its own sake o Since we know happiness is desired it is desirable 6. Happiness is the only thing for its own sake o 5 by itself is not enough to prove utilitarianism o he has to prove that it is the only thing desired for its own sake 7. Happiness is the only thing desirable for its own sake o 7 follows from 2
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o appealing from premise 2 we get 7
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