Elements Minerals Rocks Soils 10212 908 PM Neutrons neutrally charged particles

Elements minerals rocks soils 10212 908 pm neutrons

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Elements Minerals Rocks Soils 10/2/12 9:08 PM Neutrons-neutrally charged particles- glue that holds protons together. Holds nucleus of  atom together. Mass number is sum of protons and neutrons. Neutrons can vary in the  element. Number of neutrons vary in carbon-isotopes- same protons but different  neutrons. Our body is made up of carbon-12. Carbon-14 is radioactive-use it for dating.  Unstable isotope.  Electrons organized into energy levels or shells. Number of electrons is important and  how theyre organized. Number of electrons can be partially filled-and determines  chemical reactivity when atoms come together and interact with each other.  When all shells are filled and protons and electrons match-things are pretty stable.  Produce atoms when things are stabled- we produce ions when things are not  balanced. If electrons transferred from one element to another- unstable?? Cation-lose  a electron and has a positive charge. Anion-gets an electron and then has a negative  charge. Bottom line is that these elements can pick up a charge-positive and negative  charges attract each other.  Attraction can interact electrons from one ion to another. Produce compounds that come  together because of the charge Compounds-when things come together because of their charge. Atoms combine in a  specific ratio. Sodium and chlorine- remove water molecules- have transfer of electron-  NA loses electron becomes positive, chlorine gains electron become negative.  Seawater….?  Charge leads to bonds. Minerals-need things bonded together and  organize into crystal forms.  Minerals- concerned with ionic bonds and covalent bonds. Has to do with what happens  with electron. Ionic-transfer of electron-called ionic bond- ions are contributing one  elctron and taking from somewhere else. Produced moderately strong bond, moderately  hard mineral. NaCl-salt. Salt can break down with saliva. 
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Elements Minerals Rocks Soils 10/2/12 9:08 PM Covalent bonds- really strong bonds- sharing electron, not really transferring. Share  between 2 ions. Produces strong bond, hard.  Metallic bonds- electron that’s being  loosely shared between different atoms. Hasn’t really found a place to stay- results in  metals having unique properties-being soft and malleable. Not too important for  minerals. Copper and silver important but eh. Mercury-liquid metal-bond is loose.  Platinum.  Residual bonds-van der waals and hydrogen bonding- weak secondary attraction that  are bonded together with other types of bond. Pretty weak. Graphite. Weakly bonded.  Talc-softly bonded. Mainly first 2 important for minerals- ionic and covalent.  Bonding important in secondary bonding phase called complex ions- very strongly  bonded together-acts as individual almost like an anion. CaCO3, SO4- complex ions-  act like anion-have other things joined onto that ion. Calcite- produced strong compound  ion which is imbound to another cations. Bond with other things. Gypsum. Complez. 
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