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7.2Fundamentals of Requirements NegotiationContradictory requirementscause conflicts.If there is no consent among the stakeholders regarding the requirementsand thus the requirements cannot be implemented collectively in the sys-tem, a conflict arises between the contradictory requirements as well asbetween the stakeholders that demand contradictory requirements. Forexample, one stakeholder could demand the system to shut down in caseof a failure, whereas another stakeholder could require the system torestart.Risks and opportunities ofconflictsThe acceptance of a system is threatened by unresolved conflictsbecause unresolved conflicts cause the requirements of at least one groupof stakeholders to not be implemented. In the worst case, a conflict causesstakeholder support to cease, causing the development project to fail (cf.[Easterbrook 1994]). Other than posing risks, conflicts can also be anopportunity for requirements engineering because conflicts betweenstakeholders require a solution that can potentially help discover newideas for development and can illustrate different options (cf. [Gause andWeinberg 1989]). Therefore, treating and resolving conflicts openly dur-ing requirements engineering can increase acceptance.Goal of requirementsnegotiationThe goal of negotiation is to gain a common and agreed-upon under-standing of the requirements of the system to be developed among all rel-evant stakeholders.Reducing costs and risksin late phasesRequirements validation and negotiation is an activity that must beperformed (to a varying degree of intensity) throughout the entirety ofrequirements engineering. The validation and negotiation of requirementstherefore causes additional effort and therefore additional costs. However,the advantages gained by performing requirements validation andnegotiation as described in the previous sections (reduction of overallcost, increase in acceptance, supporting creativity and innovations) isusually significantly higher than the costs that arise due to the increasedeffort.
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7.3Quality Aspects of Requirements917.3Quality Aspects of RequirementsA major aim of using quality criteria (e.g., completeness, understandabil-ity, agreement) in requirements validation is to be able to check require-ments systematically (see section 1.1.2). In order to assure an objective andconsistent validation, it is necessary that each quality criterion is concre-tized and refined. In correspondence with the overall goals of the require-ments engineering process, the validation is carried out with the followinggoals: Content:Have all relevant requirements been elicited and documentedwith the appropriate level of detail?Documentation:Are all requirements documented with respect to thepredetermined guidelines for documentation and specification?
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