The schema theory approaches to reading emphasize

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process, where it served as an important counterweight to purely bottom-up approaches to reading. The schema- theory approaches to reading emphasize that reading involves both the bottom-up information from the perceived letters coming into the eye and the use of top-down knowledge to construct a meaningful representation of the content of the text. Instructional Implications of Schema Theory A number of writers have derived instructional proposals from schema theory. They have suggested that relevant knowledge should be activated before reading; that teachers should try to provide prerequisite knowledge; and that more attention should be given to teaching higher-order comprehension processes. Many of these proposals are not novel, but schema theory appears to provide a theoretical and empirical basis for instructional practices that some experienced teachers were already carrying out. Impact of Schema Theory on Education Schema theory has provided education with a way to think about the representation of some forms of complex knowledge. It has focused attention on the role old knowledge plays in acquiring new knowledge, and has emphasized the role of top-down, reader-based influences in the reading process. The 4 Key Elements of a Schema The key elements of a Schema are: 1. An individual can memorize and use a schema without even realizing of doing so.
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2. Once a schema is developed, it tends to be stable over a long period of time. 3. Human mind uses schemata to organize, retrieve, and encode chunks of important information. 4. Schemata are accumulated over time and through different experiences. The practical aspect of Schema Theory Schema theory emphasizes on the importance of generic knowledge that will help the formation of mental representations. In the educational process, the task of teachers would be to help students develop new schemata and establish connections between them –something that will eventually improve their memory. Of course, background information and prior knowledge are vitally important, as well.Schema theory can been applied in various areas, such as: Mathematical problem solving A research showed that 3rd graders taught to use schemata to solve mathematical problems performed better than their peers who were taught to solve them in four steps (read – plan to solve – solve – check). Motor learning Discrete motor skills are performed in a short period of time, and involve the use of our senses to understand what is happening and then of our bodies to take action. Since most movements are unique, our ability to perform a movement class is represented by three things, according to Richard A Schmidt (1974): o a generalized motor program that captures the basic movement form o a recall schema that provides info about specific situations and intentions o a recognition schema that allows us to realize a mistake we have made Reading comprehension Schema theory is often used to assist the learning of a second language, since it usually requires reading many texts in the target language. If we fail to create a sufficient number of schemata
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