1000 IU is not dangerous either (Canadian cancer society amount recommendation) Excess Vitamin D can lead to hypercalcemia, too much deposit of calcium in the bones which can be very dangerous Doctors suggest to test presence of vitamin D in the blood Vitamin D #1 in sales amongst all vitamins Vitamin D pills cut MS risk (?) Support: those living close to the equator (more exposure to the sun) have less cases of MS Study done with Vitamin D associated with 62% increase in risk of developing cardiovascular disease (cohort study) Meta analysis done last year: concluded that there is little justification for prescribing vitamin D supplements in the general population to prevent cardiovascular disease, cancer, fracture, or to reduce the risk of death ° ° VITAMIN E Measured in IU because there are many forms of it Very difficult to cause deficiency in Vitamin E “Love Vitamin” Studies carried out with mice Lack of Vitamin E caused male mice became impotent & female mice that were pregnant aborted Doesn’t apply to humans because we aren’t deficient Chemical name Tocopherol “Oil of Fertility” Hemolytic Anemia: occurs in premature babies when there is lack of Vitamin E No other known “cures” or preventions that Vitamin E can have Study done with the effects of Vitamin E & heart disease Vitamin E & Placebo group have no difference in the number of incidences of heart disease Ramipril (heart medicine) group has a lower number of incidences of heart disease than the Placebo group Study showed 17% increased risk of prostate cancer among those taking Vitamin E °
° Use of Vitamins for Questionable Marketing Purposes Biotin helps with hair loss Rats fed a diet rich in raw egg white lose their hair Raw egg whites contain compound that binds biotin Rats lose their hair BUT does not apply to humans because we are not deficient Extra biotin has not shown to be of any benefit Vitamin B17 Laetrile (banned bogus cancer curing medication extracted from almond pits) Turned from a ineffective medication into bogus vitamin Hair Analysis There are NO vitamins in the hair (but there are minerals in the hair but does indicate mineral level in the body) Hair analysis: takes sample of hair to determine the individual’s condition (results usually claim various diseases & disorders ° ° ° ° Topic 3: Micronutrients – Minerals ° Lesson 1 (Minerals I) : Oceans contain many soluble minerals New Jersey sample: 60mL of ocean H2O Percentage of mineral/salt material by weight: 3.5% ~ the amount dissolved minerals/salts in most oceans Galapagos Islands sample: a mole of H2O (6E23 water molecules) Percentage of salt: 3.8%
Fluctuates (warmer climate; higher salt content) Dead Sea ~32% salt ° Elements VS Ions Salts are made of IONS (charged species) Ca 2+ & SO 4 2- GYPSUM (white & powdered) Mg 2+ & SO 4 2- EPSOM SALT Ca 2+ & HCO 3 - readily breaks down into CaCO 3 + CO 2 + H 2 O CaCO 3 = limestone Na + & Cl - table salt In nature, combination quite varied: Dolomite (CaCO 3 / MgCO 3
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