Grammar (2)-Hussain.docx

Ex the government have broken their promises q define

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Ex: The (government) (have) broken (their) promises. Q/ Define the principle of "proximity" and give an example? A/ It is an agreement of the verb with whatever noun or pronoun closely precedes it. Ex : One in ten takes drug. ********************************************************************** 7.20 Collective Nouns *With collective nouns, we use plural verbs depending on the idea "notional Concord". Ex: The public is tired of demonstration. *Sometimes we use a singular verb if we regard it as one entity.
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Page 13 7.21 Coordinated Subject * We Have To Distinguish Between Two Things: 1. Non-Appositional coordination: It means the phrase is reduction of two clauses, therefore, it requires plural verb Ex: Tom and Mary are ready ( Tom is ready and Mary is ready ) * If the two things refer to one entity, a singular verb is used. Ex: The hammer and sickle WAS flying the flag. 2- Appositional coordination: It means there is no reduction possible and we use a singular verb. Ex: This temple of ugliness and memorial to Victorian bad taste was erected at the Queen's express wish ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 7.22 Note *If we have coordinated modifiers with one single noun, we use a plural verb. Ex: Good and bad taste are inculcated by example. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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Page 14 7.23 *with either .... or, we do not use the principle of proximity , but with neither .... nor, we use plural verb or singular as the proximate rule demands . EX: either your eyesight of brakes are at fault. EX: neither he nor his wife has arrived. *we use the principle of proximity with. "More Than" EX: More than a thousand inhabitants have signed. EX: More than one person has protested. * **************************************************************************** ******************* 7.24 Indefinite Expressions of Amount *when we have "non" and "neither" to come done We can use both singular and plural M, B, but if we use "none of them "or "neither of them ", plural verb is favored. Ex. 1. I sent Mary and John a card, but (none have _neither has) replied. 2 . I sent Mary and John a card, but (none_ neither) of them have replied. ~~~~~~~~~~~~ 7.25 *Everybody, everyone and nobody requires a singular verb, but if they are flowed by plural nouns, we use plural verbs following the proximity rule: Ex. Nobody answers correctly. Ex: Nobody, even the teacher, was listening.
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Page 15 * The same rule is applied to (a large number of, that kind, sort, type of) Ex. 1. A large number of people were here. 2. Those kind /sort/type of parties are favoured now . ------------------------------------------------ 7.26 Concord of Person *Either ..... or" and "neither ...... nor" is followed by singular or plural verb depending on the last phrase as per the proximity rule. Ex: Neither you nor I nor anyone else knows the answer. Ex: Either my wife or I am going. ********************************************************************** ** 7.27 Other Types of Concord *Subject-Complement concord . *If the Subject is singular and the complement is a noun, the complement has to be singular. For plural, it is the same: Ex: He is an angel. || They are angels. *There are exceptions : 1- What we need more is books. 2- They turned traitor ( But They Become Traitors ) 3- Good manners are a rarity these days.
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