jurafsky&martin_3rdEd_17 (1).pdf

Cross validation 86 development test devset 86 devset

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cross-validation, 86 development test set, 42, 86 devset, 86 devset or development test set, 42 dialog systems, 437 extrinsic, 41 , 310
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Subject Index 495 Matched-Pair Sentence Segment Word Error (MAPSSWE), 209 most frequent class baseline, 148 named entity recognition, 353 of N-gram, 41 of N-grams via perplexity, 42 pseudoword, 392 relation extraction, 364 test set, 41 training on the test set, 41 training set, 41 unsupervised WSD, 316 word similarity, 322 WSD systems, 311 event extraction, 349 , 368 existential there, 145 expansion, 171, 174 expectation step, 220 expectation step in EM, 139 Expectation-Maximization, see EM explicit confirmation, 449 exponential classifiers, 92 extended gloss overlap, 321 Extended Lesk, 321 extrinsic, 310 extrinsic evaluation, 41 F (for F -measure), 84, 209, 238 F -measure, 84, 208 in NER, 353 factoid question, 400 false negatives, 15 false positives, 15 FASTUS, 373 feature cutoff, 159 feature interactions, 100 feature selection, 99 information gain, 99 feature template, 257 feature templates, 95 part-of-speech tagging, 158 feature vector, 309 in WSD, 309 Federalist papers, 89 feed-forward network, 108 filled pause, 19 filler, 19 final lowering, 448 first-order co-occurrence, 274 first-order Markov chain, 123 focus, 413 fold (in cross-validation), 86 food in NLP ice cream, 125 formal language, 172 forward algorithm, 28, 129 , 130 FORWARD ALGORITHM , 131 forward composition, 190 forward trellis, 129 forward-backward algorithm, 135, 141 backward probability in, 135 relation to inside-outside, 220 FORWARD - BACKWARD ALGORITHM , 139 Fosler, E., see Fosler-Lussier, E. fragment of word, 19 frame semantic, 383 frame elements, 383 FrameNet, 383 frames, 427 free word order, 245 FREE917, 416 Freebase, 356 Frump, 374 fully connected HMM, 126 fully qualified date expressions, 368 fully-connected, 109 function word, 143 , 164 functional grammar, 195 garden-path sentences, 240 , 242 gaussian prior on weights, 99 gazetteer, 352 General Inquirer, 82 , 327 generalized semantic role, 380 generation of sentences to test a CFG grammar, 171 template-based, 434 generative grammar, 172 generative lexicon, 325 generative model, 92 generative syntax, 195 generator, 170 genitive NP, 196 gerundive postmodifier, 177 Gilbert and Sullivan, 61, 348 gloss, 305 Godzilla, speaker as, 388 gold labels, 83 The Gondoliers , 61 Good-Turing, 50 government and binding, 194 gradient, 113 Grammar Constraint, 268 Construction, 194 Government and Binding, 194 Head-Driven Phrase Structure (HPSG), 185, 194 Lexical-Functional (LFG), 194 Link, 268 Probabilistic Tree Adjoining, 243 Tree Adjoining, 195 grammar binary branching, 187 categorial, 188, 188 CCG, 188 checking, 197 combinatory categorial, 188 equivalence, 187 generative, 172 strong equivalence, 187 weak equivalence, 187 Grammar Rock, 142 grammatical function, 246 grammatical relation, 246 grammatical sentences, 172 greedy, 160 greedy RE patterns, 15 greeting, 145 grep, 11, 11 , 31 ground, 443 grounding five kinds of, 443 Hamilton, Alexander, 89 hanzi, 23 hard clustering, 296 harmonic mean, 85 , 209 , 238 Hays, D., 268 head, 185 , 246 finding, 185 in lexicalized grammar, 225 tag, 225 head tag, 225 Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG), 185, 194 Heaps’ Law, 20 Hearst, M. A., 241 HECTOR corpus, 308 held out, 41 held-out, 50 Herdan’s Law, 20 hidden layer, 109 as representation of input, 110 hidden units, 109 HMM, 124 accepting states, 126 deleted interpolation, 155 ergodic, 126 formal definition of, 125 fully connected, 126
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