DSST Intro to Computers

Microcontrollers embedded computers small specialized

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49. Microcontrollers – embedded computers, small specialized microprocessors, cell phones, microwaves, MP3 players, digital cameras, household appliances 50. Embedded System – any electronic system that uses a CPU but is not a general purpose computer (i.e.: PDAs, cell phones, watches, planes, trains, and machine tools) 51. Server – central computer that holds a collection of data and/or applications for providing services to workstations and PCs (can store files or provide services (I.e.: printing) 52. Hardware – all of the physical equipment in a computer system (physical memory, CPU, keyboard, mouse, printer) 53. Multimedia technology – presents information in a format which includes text, graphics, video and sound 54. Data – raw facts and figures that is processed to produce information 55. Computer Processing – is manipulation of data which transforms data into information 56. Parallel processing – when a computer performs several tasks simultaneously – several processors work together sharing memory on the same task, used in large computer systems to keep operating when on CPU fails 57. Application software – software designed to solve a specific problem, (i.e.: Word, Excel, Access, graphic software) 58. Utility Software – designed to help monitor and configure settings for the computer, the operating system or application (i.e.: backup and recovery software, antivirus software, disk cleanup) Most Popular – Norton Antivirus and McAfee VirusScan 59. GUI (Graphic User Interface) – allows user to select icons and commands, sometimes called a computer dashboard 60. DOS and UNIX – command driven interfaces 61. System software – device drivers, utility programs, and operating system (helps computer manage internal and external resources) 62. OS (Operating System) – main system software in any computer, all applications are written to run on top of a specific operating system (Windows, Linux, Unix and Macintosh OS) – Operating Symbols – operating
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systems attach special significance to a symbol and won’t let you use these characters in a file name. (IE: Windows doesn’t allow *?”:/) Windows allows a file name to be up to 255 characters long 63. Kernel – “Supervisor” - manages nonresident programs while in main memory 64. Queues – data and programs waiting to be processed (FIFO) sequential, hard disk waiting area is called a buffer 65. File – named collection of data that exists on a storage medium : hard disk, floppy, CD 66. Service Pack – collection of Microsoft files for security improvements, bugs, fixes, and software updates 67. UNIX – proprietary multitasking operating system with built-in networking capabilities to support multiple users, developed by Bell Laboratories in 1969, today currently runs all types of computers 68. Command Line Interface - most common user interface for UNIX systems similar to MS-DOS interface 69. Solaris – version of UNIX popular for large websites and e-commerce servers (made by Sun Microsystems) - -also UNIX - HP-UX by Hewlett Packard 70. Linux – non-proprietary version of UNIX, maintained by volunteer programmers around the world,
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Microcontrollers embedded computers small specialized...

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