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oFocuses more on the client’s present state, rather than his early life.oThere is a general understanding that psychotherapy does not cure but that it canhelp troubled individuals learn to better deal with life’s inevitable stressors.oThe best candidates for psychodynamic therapy are relatively healthy and well-functioning individuals, sometimes referred to as the “worried well,”Interpersonal psychotherapy oAn effective short-term therapy derived from the school of psychiatry that originated with Adolph Meyer and Harry Stack Sullivan. oThe goal is to reduce or eliminate psychiatric symptoms (particularly depression) by improving interpersonal functioning and satisfaction with social relationships.Cognitive therapyoIs based on the cognitive model, which focuses on individual thoughts and behaviors to solve current problems.7
oIt treats depression, anxiety, eating disorders, and other issues that can improve by changing a client’s attitude toward life experiences.oCognitive reframing assists clients to identify negative thoughts that produce anxiety, examine the cause, and develop supportive ideas that replace negative self-talk.Priority restructuring Assists clients to identify what requires priority, such as devoting energy to pleasurable activities.Journal keepingHelps clients write down stressful thoughts and has a positive effect on well-being.Assertiveness trainingTeaches clients to express feelings, and solve problems in a nonaggressive manner.Monitoring thoughts Helps clients to be aware of negative thinking.Behavioral therapy oBased on the theory that behavior is learned and has consequences.oAbnormal behavior results from an attempt to avoid painful feelings. Changing abnormal or maladaptive behavior can occur without the need for insight into the underlying cause of the behavioroBest when it is directed at specific problems and the goals are well defined.oTeach clients ways to decrease anxiety or avoidant behavior and give clients an opportunity to practice techniques.oModelingA therapist or others serve as role models for a client, who imitates this modeling to improve behavior.Use in Mental Health NursingHelp clients improve interpersonal skills. The therapist demonstrates appropriate behavior in a stressful situation with the goal of having the client imitate the behavior.oOperant conditioningThe client receives positive rewards for positive behavior (positive reinforcement).Use in Mental Health NursingA client receives tokens for good behavior, and he can exchange them for a privilege or other items.In patients with severe and persistent mental illness, behavior modification has helped increase levels of self-care, social behavior,group participation, and more.