This approach asks what causes behaviours and what

This preview shows page 2 - 6 out of 26 pages.

This approach asks what causes behaviours and what are the consequences of behaviours. Classical (Pavlovian) conditioning VS Operant conditioning . Psychoanalysis (Now called psychodynamic theory) Sigmund Freud: proposed the theory of psychoanalysis and the idea of the unconscious mind. Psychological disorders are the results of being stuck in one of the development stages of childhood and this causes problems later. Psychoanalysis is the dissection of speech to identify the underlying problem that causes undesirable behavior. This is not scientific or observable and is no longer a popular form of therapy. Humanistic Psychology: Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers: they looked at very successful and happy people and 2
Image of page 2

Subscribe to view the full document.

identified characteristics that make them successful or happy. Emphasized environmental influences on our growth potential. Proposed the hierarchy of needs : Highlight on love and emotional need Cognitive Psychology and Neuroscience: Cognitive psychology focuses on how we encode, process, store, and retrieve information Neuroscience: a biological and physiological study of brain. Levels of Analysis: Biopsychosocial Approach: A combination of biological, psychological, and social-cultural approach on mental/behavioural 3
Image of page 3
processes. Jan. 13, 2012 What is The Scientific Method: Theory: theory starts with observations and seeks to explain a variety of observations with a single explanation. It tries to explain through an organized set of principles. It must also be testable. Example: Depression Cognitive theory of Depression: Observation: feelings of worthlessness, guilt, helplessness Cognitive principle: feelings influences thoughts, so negative event triggers negative thought which can then be generalized to everything. Cognitive theory: depression is the result of low self-esteem Neurobiological theory of Depression: Neurobiological principle: neurochemical underlies all our experiences including our feelings. Serotonin is associated with positive moods. Cognitive theory: neurochemical imbalance (low serotonin level) causes depression. Testable Predictions (Hypothesis) Testable predictions come logically from principles of the theory. How do we measure subjective qualities? Researchers must define the operation they went through to measure the attribute or behavior that they are trying to measure. You do this because: This way, the same study can be replicated with different participants or with slight modifications to the experiment It prevents experimenter bias It also allows your peers to give you constructive criticism to improve your experiments. Operational definition: measuring subjective qualities through response to statements and 4
Image of page 4

Subscribe to view the full document.

questionnaires.
Image of page 5
Image of page 6
You've reached the end of this preview.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern