at Koirinoja, achieving the goal of splitting the Soviet forces. During the rest ofJuly, the Army of Karelia advanced further south-east into Karelia, coming to ahalt at the former Finnish-Soviet border at Mansila. With the Soviet forces cutin half, the attack on the Karelian Isthmus could now commence. The Finnisharmy attempted to encircle large Soviet formations at Sortavala and Hiitola byadvancing to the western shores of Lake-Ladoga. By mid-August theencirclement succeeded and both towns were taken, but large Sovietformations were able to evacuate by sea. Further west the attack on Viborgwas launched. With Soviet resistance breaking down, the Finns were able toencircle Vyborg by advancing to the Vuoksi River. By the beginning ofSeptember, Finland had restored its pre-winter war borders. 1110 Ziemke, Earl F.Stalingrad to Berlin: The German Defeat in the East. Government Printing Office, 1968.11 Nenye, Vesa, Peter Munter, Toni Wirtanen, and Chris Birks.Finland at War: the Continuation and Lapland Wars 1941Â? 45. Bloomsbury Publishing, 2016.21RESTRICTED
RESTRICTED 20.Phase 3 a.Central Rusia.b.LeningradBy mid-July, the German forces had advanced within a few kilometersof Kiev below the Pripyat Marshes. The 1st Panzer Group then went southwhile the 17th Army struck east and trapped three Soviet armies near Uman.As the Germans eliminated the pocket, the tanks turned north and crossedthe Dnieper. Meanwhile, the 2nd Panzer Group, diverted from Army GroupCenter, had crossed the Desna River with 2nd Army on its right flank. The twoPanzer armies now trapped four Soviet armies and parts of two others. ByAugust, the Luftwaffe found itself struggling to maintain local air superiority inthe front lines. Also in October, the Luftwaffe was on several occasions forcedto halt nearly all aerial operations. The VVS, although faced with the sameweather difficulties, had a clear advantage thanks to the prewar experiencewith cold-weather flying techniques, and the fact that they were operating fromintact airbases and airports. By December, the VVS had matched theLuftwaffe and was even pressing to achieve air superiority. 12The Germans attacked Leningrad in August 1941; in the following threeblack months of 1941, 400,000 residents of the city worked to build the city'sfortifications as fighting continued, while 160,000 others joined the ranks ofthe Red Army. The Germans severed the railroads to Moscow and capturedthe railroad to Murmansk with Finnish assistance to inaugurate the start of asiege that would last for over two years. At this stage, Hitler ordered the finaldestruction of Leningrad with no prisoners taken, and on 9 September, Army12 Swinney, G. "Vol 9 No 6-December 1994."22RESTRICTED
RESTRICTEDGroup North began the final push. Within ten days it had advanced within 11kilometres of the city. However, the push over the last 10 km proved very slowand casualties mounted. Hitler, now out of patience, ordered that Leningradshould not be stormed, but rather starved into submission. Along these lines,the OKH issued Directive No. la 1601/41 on 22 September 1941, which
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