Advertising the business of creating conditioned emotional responses to

Advertising the business of creating conditioned

This preview shows page 10 - 13 out of 41 pages.

Advertising: the business of creating conditioned emotional responses to products o advertisers pair their products with stimuli that elicit positive emotions you are more like to buy a product that is associated with something you like o such as a famous, attractive celebrity Operant Conditioning learning from consequences o aka the stimuli that come from AFTER the behavior keep in mind: o all voluntary behavior is done to 1) get something or 2) avoid something Thorndike and the Law of Effect He built puzzle boxes and put a cat in one of the boxes to see how long it took the cat to escape the box; there is a ring inside the box and if the cat pulls the ring, the door opens and the cat can escape; if it takes two hours the first time, it will probably take less the second time he put the cat in the box
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Law of Effect : behavior is determined by its consequences B.F. Skinner built an experimental chamber that delivered food pellets when a lever was pressed o studied pigeons and rodents Operant Learning : any procedure by which a behavior is strengthened or weakened by its consequences o the behavior “operates” on the environment to produce the consequences Reinforcement and Punishment two main aspects of operant conditioning: o reinforcement : consequences that strengthens/increases a behavior o punishment : consequences that weakens/decreases a behavior o something is a reinforce/punisher only if it increases a behavior (so must look at outcome, not out intentions) Something Given Something Taken Away Behavior + Reinforcement - Reinforcement Behavior Punishment Punishment o ex: participating in class to avoid having to do homework: - reinforcer pain medication; behavior is taking the pill; if you take the medication to get rid of pain is a –reinforcer o ex: sending a kid to timeout and they come back still being bad: + reinforcer kids might try to miss behave so they can get out of the classroom candy, money, etc. o ex: if you bring home a bad grade; your parents can take away technology, friends, car, etc: - punishment Reinforcement a behavior can be increased/strengthened in one of two ways: o administering something (positive reinforcement) behavior continued because it helps you obtain something ex: if you make good grades, your parents might give you money or take you to eat o taking something away (negative reinforcement) behavior continued because it helps you avoid something aversive Types of Reinforcers Primary Reinforcers o innately reinforcing (requires no experience) o not dependent on association with other reinforcers o food, drug effects, sex, water Secondary Reinforcers (much easier for us to use because there is more of them & can carry them around) o dependent on association with other reinforcers thus also called “conditioned reinforcers”
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acquire their power by being paired with other reinforces o money, praise, grades, positive feedback, tokens
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