Piety and religious experience Inner meaning of rituals Intimate links between

Piety and religious experience inner meaning of

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Piety and religious experience. - Inner meaning of rituals - Intimate links between law & mysticism But controversies continued … - “Anti-nomianism”. Deliberately break taboos, invert norms to achieve liberation 4) The Sufi Orders
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Institutionalisation: - Tariqa (‘way’ or ‘path’); path to God, informal circles of learning. Overtime = institutionalised, - Local/regional orders or brotherhoods Pir (guide) & murid (student) - Allegiance to one who has been through stages & states of union - Spiritual chain / silsila linking shaykh to Muhammad, ‘Ali ... (spitirual trees of lineage) Retreats or convents: - Ribat , khanaqah , zawiyah, tekke Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani (d.1166) Most popular shaykh in South Asia despite never having gone there (Jilan, Baghdad) Ghawth al-Azam (Great Helper); legends & miracles Mu’in al-Din Hasan Chishti (d.1236) Chishtiyya - use of music, e.g. qawwali , intoxicated Spiritual attitude more important than religious law/practice. M. Baha al-Din al-Naqshbandi (d.1389) Naqshbandiyya - restrained, more ‘orthodox’ Typically perform only mental, interior dhikr 5) Popular Belief & Practice Mazar / Shrine of Saint - ( Dargah ) – ‘royal court’. Tomb = court. When built in Indaia = empyreal order. Form of religious wife = political order Ziyarah – visitation - petitions for help - especially Thursday evening - juma raat . - Thursday nights go ask in the dargah = go ask for advice Also death anniversary - ‘Urs - (literally wedding). - Culmination of yearning to meet God. - Mela – popular festival / carnival / fair. - Qawwali / sama : vernacular lyrics on God, Muhammad, Ali, saints People seeking blessing, grace ( baraka ) & intercession ( tawassul ) - Ritual veneration – touch, kiss, prostrate - Material/spiritual problems, life-cycle events o e.g. ailments – eye, skin, fertility, possession - Key religious spaces for women. Niyaz = offerings to saint Land, money, etc Animals, food. Langar (kitchen). Tabarruk (holy food) N.B. Hindus / Sikhs visit Muslim saints
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Similar customs - offering sweets & flowers Shrines asking for a marabouts help in becoming pregnant. You must bring a gift to open a matter with God – offerinds and sacrifices creates a bond og obligation between the pious one and the client. Some muslims see [dhikrs] as threat to the integrity of Islam
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