4. The term "vaccine" came from the term "Variolae vaccinae" which means "smallpox of the cow". XI. Epidemiology – John Snow 1. is the study of the source, cause, and mode of transmission of disease. 2. John Snow received the honorary title of "The Father of Epidemiology". He is known as the first person to conduct an epidemiological study. 3. In 1848, British physician John Snow conducted the first epidemiological study to discover the source of cholera outbreaks in London.
4. Snow successfully traced the origins of the outbreaks to a water source that was found to be contaminated with sewage. 5. John Snow showed that disease is not only transmitted through the air, but can also through contaminated items, like water. XII. Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis (1818 – 1865) 1. Sammelweis demonstrated that the non-sterile environments that the patients endured during surgeries, lead to the development of these deadly post-operative infections. 2. Semmelweis's discovery was met by disbelief among scientists and doctors of the day. They were reluctant to accept that hand washing reduced mortality rates, because the idea of Miasmatic Theory was prevalent and widely accepted within the medical and scientific communities. 3. In fact, many medical practitioners refused to wash their hands and were insulted at the idea that their hands may be contaminated. 4. Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis was instrumental in the development of aseptic techniques as a defense against the germs that were the cause of disease, according to Germ Theory, which had not yet gained popularity at the time. 5. Semmelweis discovered that hand washing in obstetrical; clinics drastically reduced the incidence of "childhood fever", or puerperal fever. 6. Semmelweis was coined "the Savior of Mothers". 7. Sammelweis's ideas were met with disbelief by many members of the scientific and medical communities. 8. Non-sterile environments were still commonplace, resulting in extraordinarily high (~ 50%) mortality rates among patients who had undergone various surgical procedures. 9. Semmelweis concluded that these infections were due to unseen microbes that were able to travel through air or by a contaminated object coming into direct contact with the patients., causing illness and death. These infections were so common, they were termed "ward fever". Unfortunately, his ideas were not popularized until after his death, when Lister and Pasteur continued the work in antisepsis. XIII. Joseph Lister in 1902
1. John Lister also furthered the earlier work by Ignaz Semmelweis (1818–1865) who had developed the practice of sterile techniques and demonstrated the link between the non- sterile environment and disease. 2. The medical and scientific communities were more accepting of Sammelweis at this time, largely due to the overwhelming evidence produced by many scientists and physicians, including work done by Louis Pasteur, that provided overwhelming evidence supporting germ theory.
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