Timing appears mainly on genetic factors also

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Timing appears mainly on genetic factors: - Also environmental factors (stress) may have early puberty: - Timing important in developed countries--> but everyone eventually gets there - Chronological age has more significance in developed countries--> as school systems are age-graded (grouped on basis of age rather than developmental maturity) - Research has been conducted on very early versus late maturation among West adolescents: effects differ: body image, popularity, school performance, or behaviour problems - Why: one includes cultural values about physical appearance § Second: early physical development draws attention from older boys--> older group friends--> substance use, delinquency and early sexual activity § Effects of early are negative--> risk of numerous problems: depression, negative body image, eating disorders, substance use, delinquency, aggressive behaviour, school problems, conflict with parents Late maturing--> teasing and negative body image; tend to have a more favorable body image in late teens b/c they end up with lean body built Some studies show most negative effects diminish § One study British and Sweden--> early-maturing entered marriage and parenthood earlier § American study--> age 24 early mature had more psychological and social problems § Long term of early--> mixed Early and Late Maturation Among Girls: - Get their growth spurt and muscle development before other boys--> gives advantage in sports which is important for prestige and popularity § Early: are positive b/c tend to have more favourable body image and be more popular Early and Late Maturation Among Boys: -
prestige and popularity Early means facial hair, lowered voice, and other characteristics--> appear attractive to girls § Study--> 40 years later achieved greater success in careers and high marital satisfaction § Studies report higher rates of emotional distress § Some effects are negative--> earlier in delinquency, sex and substance abuse: Late maturation--> problems: higher rates of alcohol use and delinquency; lower grades in school; has elevated levels of substance use and deviant behaviour Early girls--> risk for a host of problems mainly due to association with older boys Late girls--> no risk Early/late boys--> risk for problems but also early has some benefits Mixed reviews: - Scholars debated about importance of biology and environment in human development - Recently, it's been right to say both influence Nature-nurture debate --> some claimed behaviour can be explained by biological factors while some say it is only environmental - Relative strengths of genetics and environment are difficult because our genes influence the kind of environment we experience (reason for -->) Theory of genotype--> environmental effects --> both genotypes (inherited genes) and environment make essential contributions to human development - Occur in biological families b/c parents provide both genes and environment for children Has implications on how we view development Yes he created the stimulating environment but also may have gave her the necessary genes for drawing §

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