J.The White Farmer1.The aftermath of the war hurt small white farmers.a)Crop-lien system (use of crop as collateral for loans from merchants for supplies)b)White farmers increased cotton cultivation, cotton prices plummeted, and they found themselves unable to pay back loans.2.Both black and white farmers found themselves caught in the sharecropping and crop-lien systems.3.Southern cities experienced remarkable growth after the Civil War.a)Rise of a new middle classK.Aftermaths of Slavery1.The Reconstruction-era debates over transitioning from slavery to freedom had parallels in other Western Hemisphere countries where emancipation occurred in the nineteenth century.2.Only in the United States did former slaves gain political rights quickly.III.The Making of Radical ReconstructionA.Andrew Johnson1.Johnson identified himself as the champion of the “honest yeomen” and a foe of large planters.2.Johnson lacked Lincoln’s political skills and keen sense of public opinion.3.Johnson believed that African-Americans had no role to
play in Reconstruction.B.The Failure of Presidential Reconstruction1.Johnson’s plan for Reconstruction offered pardons to the white southern elite.2.Johnson’s plan allowed the new state governments a free hand in managing local affairs.C.The Black Codes1.Southern governments began passing new laws that restricted the freedom of blacks.2.These new laws violated free labor principles and called forth a vigorous response from the Republican North.D.The Radical Republicans1.Radical Republicans called for the dissolution of Johnson’sstate governments, the establishment of new governmentsthat did not have “rebels” in power, and the guarantee of the right to vote for black men.2.The Radicals fully embraced the expanded powers of the federal government born of the Civil War.a)Charles Summerb)Thaddeus Stevens3.Thaddeus Stevens’s most cherished aim was to confiscate the land of disloyal planters and divide it among former slaves and northern migrants to the South.a)His plan was too radical for most others in Congress.E.The Origins of Civil Rights1.Most Republicans were moderates, not radicals.2.Senator Lyman Trumbull of Illinois proposed two bills to modify Johnson’s policy:a)Extend the life of the Freedmen’s Bureaub)Civil Rights Bill (equality before the law was central;
it sought to overturn the Black Codes)3.Johnson vetoed both bills.4.Congress passed the Civil Rights Bill over his veto and later extended the life of the Freedmen’s Bureau.F.The Fourteenth Amendment1.It placed in the Constitution the principle of citizenship forall persons born in the United States and empowered the federal government to protect the rights of all Americans.
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