Children and running the household p144 socialization

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children and running the household p.144 Socialization and Gender in the West The Gender Intensification Hypothesis Psychologists John Hill and Mary Ellen Lynch proposed the gender intensification hypothesis psychological and behavioural differences between males and females become more pronounced in the transition from childhood to adolescence because of intensified socialization pressures to conform to culturally prescribed gender roles o The intensity of gender socialization in adolescence is greater for females than for males Girls become notably more self-conscious than boys about their physical appearance because looking physically attractive becomes an especially important part of the female gender role. Girls also become more interested and adept than boys in forming intimate friendships o Ex. A national American longitudinal study found that adolescent boys and girls responded differently to weight gain during adolescence, with girls expressing more body dissatisfaction than boys who gained a comparable amount which increased over the course of adolescence, and by late adolescence many of them were dissatisfied even if their weight gain was normal. Gender Socialization: Family, Peers, and School p.145 Differential gender socialization begins early, in virtually every culture. o Parents dress their boys and girls differently, give them different toys, and decorate their bedrooms differently. In the course of growing up, children get encouragement from parents, peers, and teachers to conform to gender roles leads to children playing with same sex peers and being ridiculed if they deviate from gender norms During middle childhood, gender roles often become temporarily more flexible. However, with the gender intensification of adolescence, differential socialization becomes more pronounced. o Parents tend to monitor and restrict adolescent girls more than boys with where they’re allowed to go and with whom o With regard to school, research has found that teachers—both males and females —generally reinforce the traditional cultural messages regarding gender p.146 Teachers assume boys are more aggressive and dominant and that girls are more silent and compliant Girls surpass boys in academic achievements however the educational and occupational interests and choices of adolescent and emerging adult males and females remain different in some gender-specific ways (ex. women in traditional female professions such as nursing and child care and boys in engineering and scientific research)
Often differential socialization simply results from the different expectations that parents and teachers have for males and females as a consequence of their own gender socialization – often without thinking consciously about what they are doing Media and Gender In today’s world, especially in developed countries, gender socialization takes place not just through parents, peers, friends, and schools, but through the media.

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