The supply curve slopes upward because when the price

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The supply curve slopes upward because when the price is high, suppliers' profits increase, so they supply more output to the market. The result is the law of supply— other things equal, when the price of a good rises, the quantity supplied of the good also rises. 8. A change in producers' technology leads to a shift in the supply curve. A change in price leads to a movement along the supply curve. 9. The equilibrium of a market is the point at which the quantity demanded is equal to quantity supplied. If the price is above the equilibrium price, sellers want to sell more than buyers want to buy, so there is a surplus. Sellers try to increase their sales by cutting prices. That continues until they reach the equilibrium price. If the price is below the equilibrium price, buyers want to buy more than sellers want to sell, so there is a shortage. Sellers can raise their price without losing customers. That continues until they reach the equilibrium price. 23
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10. When the price of beer rises, the demand for pizza declines, because beer and pizza are complements and people want to buy less beer. When we say the demand for pizza declines, we mean that the demand curve for pizza shifts to the left as in Figure 5. The supply curve for pizza is not affected. With a shift to the left in the demand curve, the equilibrium price and quantity both decline, as the figure shows. Thus the quantity of pizza supplied and demanded both fall. In sum, supply is unchanged, demand is decreased, quantity supplied declines, quantity demanded declines, and the price falls. Figure 5 11. Prices play a vital role in market economies because they bring markets into equilibrium. If the price is different from its equilibrium level, quantity supplied and quantity demanded are not equal. The resulting surplus or shortage leads suppliers to adjust the price until equilibrium is restored. Prices thus serve as signals that guide economic decisions and allocate scarce resources. Problems and Applications 1. a. Cold weather damages the orange crop, reducing the supply of oranges. This can be seen in Figure 6 as a shift to the left in the supply curve for oranges. The new equilibrium price is higher than the old equilibrium price. 24
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Figure 6 b. People often travel to the Caribbean from New England to escape cold weather, so demand for Caribbean hotel rooms is high in the winter. In the summer, fewer people travel to the Caribbean, since northern climes are more pleasant. The result, as shown in Figure 7, is a shift to the left in the demand curve. The equilibrium price of Caribbean hotel rooms is thus lower in the summer than in the winter, as the figure shows. Figure 7 c. When a war breaks out in the Middle East, many markets are affected. Since much oil production takes place there, the war disrupts oil supplies, shifting the supply curve for gasoline to the left, as shown in Figure 8. The result is a rise in the equilibrium price of gasoline. With a higher price for gasoline, the cost of operating a gas-guzzling automobile, like a Cadillac, will increase. As a result,
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