BUS103 STUDY UNIT 3 SU3–3 Here is a mnemonic to help you remember. Motivation = DIP(Direction, Intensity, Persistence) You should now read Robbins and Judge (2015), Chapter 7, pp. 215-216 to learn more about the three elements of motivation. 1.2Early Theories of Motivation In this section, we will go over two motivation theories formulated in the 1950s. Understanding these theories will provide you with a basic understanding of what motivates people. Even though these theories are old and have limited empirical support, many managers still use these theories to guide their decisions. Pay attention in your workplace and try to see if you recognise any workplace policies that are influenced by these theories. 1.2.1 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs TheoryAbraham Maslow hypothesised that within every human being, there exists a hierarchy of five needs. Physiological needs: Hunger, thirst, shelter, and basic bodily needs. Safety needs: Security and protection from physical and emotional harm. Social needs:Affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship. Esteem needs: Internal esteem factors such as self-respect, autonomy, and achievement, and external esteem factors like status, recognition, and attention. Self-actualisation:Drive to become what one is capable of becoming. It concerns growth, achieving one’s potential, and self-fulfilment. As lower level needs become reasonably fulfilled, the next need becomes dominant.
BUS103 STUDY UNIT 3 SU3–4 You should now read Robbins and Judge (2015), Chapter 7, pp. 217-218 to learn more about Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. 1.2.2 McClelland’s Theory of NeedsDavid McClelland suggests that achievement, power, and affiliation are three important needs that can help explain motivation. Need for Achievement:Drive to excel. Need for Power:Need to influence others to behave in a certain way. Need for Affiliation:Desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships. Different individuals value these three needs differently and hence, are motivated by different things. For example, an individual high in need for achievement is interested in how well he or she does personally, but may not be interested in influencing others (high need for power). Self-actualisationEsteemSocial SafetyPhysiological
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