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DSST Fundamentals of counseling

Naturalistic observation like phenomenology is a

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Naturalistic observation, like phenomenology, is a descriptive method which involves no manipulation of antecedent conditions. It involves observing behavior in a real-life or natural setting. Edward Titchener is associated with structuralism . Structuralism is one of the early views of psychology which considers the subject matter of psychology to be human consciousness and suggest that consciousness be analyzed in terms of sensations and feelings. Structuralism was a theory that uses culturally interconnected signs to reconstruct systems of relationships rather than studying isolated, material things in themselves. Structuralism found wide use from the early 20th century in a variety of fields, and is notably based upon the developments by Wilhelm Wundt’s psychology (advanced by Englishman Edward Titchener) of the structure of the mind. Structuralism involves the use of a technique called introspection . Introspection is the process of examining what is happening in one's mind and what one is thinking and feeling. Multicultural counseling and therapy is an approach that recognizes all helping methodologies are rooted within a cultural context.
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Multicultural counseling and therapy (MCT) is an integrative approach to counseling that combines many techniques and theoretical constructs to form its own theory. Multicultural Counseling and Therapy begins with the awareness that there are distinct differences between clients and between cultures. Multicultural Counseling and Therapy is a person centered approach counseling. Because it places an emphasis on differences between people it is person centered. It stresses the importance of looking at the individual as a person, as a family member, and as a member of an ethnic or cultural group. Multicultural Counseling and Therapy therapists recognize that individuals posses an individual, group, and universal level of identity. Each individual is unique yet they belong to a group (family, cultural, religious, sexual orientation, etc…) and they all share the universal identity of being human. MCT recognizes that each of these levels coexist and that sometimes a client needs to focus on their individual needs but those needs are interrelated with the group and universal needs. Multicultural Counseling and Therapy is a Meta-theory that offers a theory about the different counseling theories. Multicultural Counseling and Therapy offers a new framework within which to work and counsel. It recognizes the Western world’s theories as neither good nor bad but simply as a collection of ideas that represent different worldviews. The Afro centric worldview is holistic, interdependent, and oriented toward collective survival. When doing therapy with African Americans or those of African or Caribbean descent it is imperative to remember that this collectivism is at the core of who they are and how they view the world. The Afro centric view also places a great deal of respect with elderly persons and focuses on harmony and cooperation.
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