Fluid filled mitochondrial matrix Mitochondrial DNA Similarities between

Fluid filled mitochondrial matrix mitochondrial dna

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Fluid filled mitochondrial matrix - Mitochondrial DNA Similarities between mitochondria and chloroplasts (Endosymbiont Theory) – linked to evolution -double membrane - Their own DNA -their own circular DNA (found in bacteria) - their own ribosomes -multiply by binary fission (just break into 2 to reproduce bc they have everything they need) Endosymbiont Theory 1.Started with 2 independent bacteria One bacterium engulfs the other One bacteria lives inside the other Both bacteria benefit from the arrangement The internal bacteria lives on its on 9/25/17 Metabolism: totality of an organisms chemical reactions - Manages the material and energy resources of the cell Catabolic Pathway: leads to RELEASE of energy by the breakdown of complex molecules to simpler compounds Anabolic pathways consume energy to build complicated molecules from simpler ones Energy: capacity to do work Potential energy : an object at rest can possess PE depending on it if has stored energy as a result of its position or structure Kinetic energy anything that is moving is said to KE Chemical energy A form of PE is stored in molecules amount of CE a molecule possess depends on its chemical bonds When atoms combine to make a compound, energy is always released, and the compound has a lower overall energy - That is the bonded atoms have a lower energy than the individual atoms do - Difference in energy usually released as heat First Law of Thermodynamics -energy of the universe is constant - energy CAN be transferred and transformed
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-energy CANNOT be created or destroyed - every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe heat is given off increasing entropy bc there is more kinetic energy bc particles heated up r crashing into each other diffusion: movement from high to low - How does the second law of thermodynamics help explain the diffusion of a substance across a membrane? -The increasing entropy in the universe takes the form of increasing amounts of heat and less ordered forms of matter S pontaneous Process - “energetically favorable” Free energy change of a reaction tells whether or not the reaction occurs spontaneously - free energy: the part of a systems energy that is able to perform work (when the temperature of a system is uniform) - Delta G Exergonic - Energy is released - Occur spontaneously - Release free energy to the system - DeltaG <0 Endergonic - Requires energy in order to proceed - Absorb free energy - Require free energy from the system - DeltaG>0 Depletion of chemical energy is accounted for by heat generated during metabolism In most ecosystems, energy flows into the system in form of ATP and exits in the form of heat 9/27/17 Clicker: Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions Catalysts are substances that change the rate of reaction - In most cases, enzymes can be used over and over in different experiments. If you stray from optimal pH and temp then it’ll alter the enzyme.
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