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16 beta blockers the actions of beta blockers include

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[16]Beta blockersThe actions of beta blockers include reduction inheart rate and muscle tremors, which may improveperformance in specific sports requiring steadiness andaccuracy, such as archery and shooting. These agentshave deleterious effect in endurance sports.[17]StimulantsStimulants have direct and peripheral effect on thenervous system. Substances that temporarily excite oraccelerate physiological activity are called stimulants.These agents increase alertness, reduce fatigue, andaffect mood and cardiovascular activation.[14,15]Caffeineis known to counter drowsiness, improve endurance,and enhance bodybuilding exercise. Recently publishedmeta-analysis by Grgicet al, showed significantTable 2: Categories of prohibited substances by the WorldAnti-Doping AgencySubstances and methods prohibited at all times SubstancesS0Non-approved substancesS1Anabolic agents1.Anabolic androgenic steroidsa.Exogenousb.Endogenous2.Other anabolic agentsS2Peptide hormones, growth factors, relatedsubstances, and mimeticsS3Beta-2 agonistsS4Hormone and metabolic modulatorsS5Diuretics and masking agentsMethodsM1Manipulation of blood and blood componentsM2Chemical and physical manipulationM3Gene dopingSubstances prohibited in-competitionS6Stimulantsa.Nonspecified stimulantsb.Specified stimulantsS7NarcoticsS8CannabinoidsS9GlucocorticoidsSubstances prohibited in particular sportsP1Beta blockersProhibited list by WADA for 2018 is available on .wada-ama.org/sites/default/files/prohibited_list_2018_en.pdf[Downloaded free from on Saturday, September 1, 2018, IP: 202.177.173.189]
Malve: Sports pharmacology130Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences ¦ Volume 10 ¦ Issue 3 ¦ July-September 2018ergogenic effects of caffeine ingestion on maximalmuscle strength of upper body and muscle power.[18]Methylphenidateisextensivelytransformedintoritalinic acids, which because of its chemical propertiesescape traditional detection of stimulant drugs.[19]Peptide hormones, growth factors, and relatedsubstanceHormones get metabolized rapidly and hence have avery short half-life. They are excreted in less quantity asunchanged compounds in the urine. Growth hormone(GH) or somatotropin is a polypeptide hormonesecreted by the anterior part of the pituitary gland.[14,20]The actions of GH include increase in lean body mass,energy, performance, muscle mass and strength, strokevolume, and maximal oxygen uptake. Its abuse in sportsis increasing as it is difficult to detect.[21]Analyzing the insulin concentration in blood isimportant in doping control in athletes as theadministration of exogenous insulin enhances theathlete’s performance. Bodybuilders, weight lifters, andpowerlifters use short-acting insulin to increase musclebulk. IOC banned its use except TUE.

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Term
Spring
Professor
collins
Tags
The Bible, Tour de France, stimulant, Anabolic steroid, World Anti Doping Agency, Journal of Pharmacy, Bioallied Sciences

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