symmetry, 159
Taylor, J.H., 128
tesla (unit), 146
Thomson, J.J.
202
Index
cathode ray experiments, 31
time constant
RC, 177
transformer, 175
transformerSHARED, 152
volt (unit)
defined, 83
voltage
defined, 84
related to electric field, 132
waves
electromagnetic, 153
gravitational, 128
weak nuclear force, 60, 159
Index
203
204
Index
Index
205
206
Index
Index
207
208
Index
Index
209
Useful Data
Metric Prefixes
M
mega
10
6
k
kilo
10
3
m
milli
10

3
μ
 (Greek mu)
micro
10

6
n
nano
10

9
p
pico
10

12
f
femto
10

15
(Centi, 10

2
, is used only in the centimeter.)
Notation and Units
quantity
unit
symbol
distance
meter, m
x
, Δ
x
time
second, s
t
, Δ
t
mass
kilogram, kg
m
density
kg
/
m
3
ρ
velocity
m/s
v
acceleration
m
/
s
2
a
force
N = kg
·
m
/
s
2
F
pressure
Pa=1 N
/
m
2
P
energy
J = kg
·
m
2
/
s
2
E
power
W = 1 J
/
s
P
momentum
kg
·
m
/
s
p
period
s
T
wavelength
m
λ
frequency
s

1
or Hz
f
charge
coulomb, C
q
voltage
volt, 1 V = 1 J/C
V
current
ampere, 1 A = 1 C/s
I
resistance
ohm, 1 Ω = 1 V/A
R
capacitance
farad, 1 F = 1 C/V
C
inductance
henry, 1 H = 1 V
·
s
/
A
L
electric field
V/m or N/C
E
magnetic field
tesla, 1 T = 1 N
·
s
/
C
·
m
B
Fundamental Constants
gravitational constant
G
= 6.67
×
10

11
N
·
m
2
/
kg
2
Coulomb constant
k
= 8.99
×
10
9
N
·
m
2
/
C
2
quantum of charge
e
= 1.60
×
10

19
C
speed of light
c
= 3.00
×
10
8
m/s
Conversions
Nonmetric units in terms of metric ones:
1 inch
= 25.4 mm (by definition)
1 poundforce
= 4.5 newtons of force
(1 kg)
·
g
= 2.2 poundsforce
1 scientific calorie
= 4.18 J
1 kcal
= 4.18
×
10
3
J
1 gallon
= 3.78
×
10
3
cm
3
1 horsepower
= 746 W
When speaking of food energy, the word “Calorie” is used
to mean 1 kcal, i.e., 1000 calories. In writing, the capital C
may be used to indicate 1 Calorie=1000 calories.
Relationships among U.S. units:
1 foot (ft)
= 12 inches
1 yard (yd)
= 3 feet
1 mile (mi)
= 5280 feet
Earth, Moon, and Sun
body
mass (kg)
radius (km)
radius of orbit (km)
earth
5.97
×
10
24
6.4
×
10
3
1.49
×
10
8
moon
7.35
×
10
22
1.7
×
10
3
3.84
×
10
5
sun
1.99
×
10
30
7.0
×
10
5
—
Subatomic Particles
particle
mass (kg)
radius (fm)
electron
9.109
×
10

31
0.01
proton
1.673
×
10

27
∼
1.1
neutron
1.675
×
10

27
∼
1.1
The radii of protons and neutrons can only be given approx
imately, since they have fuzzy surfaces. For comparison, a
typical atom is about a million fm in radius.
210
Index
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 Fall '08
 Staff
 Physics, Charge, Magnetism, Light, The Land, atoms, Electric charge, Robert Millikan