limitation on individual and states' rights by a strong national government; Believed Executive branch had too much power; Their demands led to the addition of a Bill of Rights to the document; Composed of small farmers, shop keepers, and laborers. 3)Articles of Confederation- (1781-1788) First frame of government for the United States; Loose alliance of independent states whose delegates met annually. Each State had one vote and was mainly a defense pack. Provided for a weak central authority. (no tax power, unable to effectively run U.S., no drafting supplies, no armies during peace) giving all the power to the States, and State governments often being liberal. Also couldn’t agree on national currency, whichinflated the economy. Soon replaced by the Constitution in 1789. The weakness of the Articles leddirectly to Shay’s Rebellion. (Many states were in debt which led to them foreclosing Farms)4)Barbary Wars- (1801-1805) pirates off the Mediterranean coast of Africa demanded tribute in exchange for refraining from attacking ships on Mediterranean. England used to pay our tribute for us, told pirates we were off their insurance plan. George Washington and John Adams paid these but President Thomas Jefferson refused to pay them tribute in 1801. He didn’t recognize them as country only criminals; also his love free trade influenced him. Sparked an undeclared naval war with North African nations. Lasted until American victory at Tripoli Harbor. The war ended in a Stalemate. Leads to Embargo of 1807.5)Battle of New Orleans- (1815) Greatest American victory in the War or 1812. Technically after the war had ended, but British wouldn’t give up port of New Orleans if they had captured it. Gen. Andrew Jackson recruited free men of color, promising to pay bounties and give them land, also recruited pirates by pardoning them of crimes. Ended British hopes of control over Mississippi River Valley.Made Andrew Jackson a national hero (eventual president), and gave America a resurgence of national pride after defeating British. Kept Port of New Orleans and control of Mississippi River. 6)Bill of Rights- (1791) First 10 amendments to the Constitution; Guaranteed individual rights against infringement by the federal government; These rights, such as freedom of speech and trial by jury, were fought for by the anti-Federalists in order to approve the Constitution. Basis of rules for how free people should be treated in new government. Had a lot of English court and trail traditions. Added in later because of antifederalist complaints.
7)Crèvecoeur’s Letters from an American Farmer- ”-(1782) A French immigrant writing about the diversity in America. How America had multiple identities and ethnicities, like