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represents the cause or reason of an outcome - and manipulating it, allows for controlled results to be tested when conducted against the dependent variable - which represents what is being measured in the study. By having a random assignment conditioning present in an experiment assures that the groups within a study are nearly the same - which eliminates the third variable problem and all its other possibilities. 2 points6.Of those two essential features, the researchers actually try to address one of them in Study 3. In this study they measure extreme valuing of happiness at time 1, and then measure bipolar symptoms at time 2. Which of the two essential features are they trying to address by doing this? The researchers were trying to address a control group. 1 point7.That means that they didn’t try to address the other essential feature, and for good reason. If they wanted to establish internal validity (the third variable problem) they would have had to randomly assign some participants to a condition where they manipulated extreme valuing of happiness and another condition where they did not, and then measure bipolar symptoms. They did not do this, but they could have. Think for a second about what this would have meant for the participants: some would have been in a condition where the researchers predict they will develop bipolar disorder, or at least experience the symptoms of bipolar disorder. Do you see any problem with that (and if so, what is the problem)? Again, think about it from the participants’ perspective. If I was a participant in this study and was told I had to be conditioned, the problem I found in that being a possible risk for developing psychological health issues. 2 points8.What is your reading difficulty estimate for this article, on a 1 = easy to 5 = very difficult scale? 3 1 point9.How long did it take you to read the article (approximately)?45 minutes. 1 point