Fundamental rules for how electrons prefer to

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Fundamental rules for how electrons prefer to organize themselves (are most stable)  about the nucleus Electrons prefer to organize in pairs Electrons prefer to organize in groups of pairs of electrons (orbitals) Cation—atom with a  net positive charge EX: Chlorine (Cl) in neutral state (no electrical charge) has 17 protons, 18 neutrons and  17 electrons.
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Positively charged stable Sodium (Na+) atom is attracted to negatively charged Chlorine  (Cl-) atom and they “bond together” to form a compound Ionic bonds-oppositely charged atoms bond together atoms acquired net charge  (positive or negative) to become more stable atoms (according to electrons structure) EX: Carbon atom—in its neutral state has 6 proton, 6-8 neutrons and 6 electrons This sharing of electrons causes the atoms to bond together—this type of bonding is  known as covalent bonding—very strong type of chemical bond, stronger than ionic or  van der Waal’s. Carbon atoms bond together (covalent bond) to form the mineral Diamond (hardest  known mineral) Van der Waal’s bond (very weak) Form when “asymmetries” develop in the distribution of electrons about the nucleus of  atoms. Asymmetries cause other atoms to arrange themselves to develop weak opposite  charges—causing an attraction (bonding) Carbon atoms under low pressures develop weak van der Waals bonds between layers 
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Fundamental rules for how electrons prefer to organize...

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