Co benefits are the additional benefits of policies implemented to mitigate

Co benefits are the additional benefits of policies

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Co-benefits are the additional benefits of policies implemented to mitigate climate change. Most pol- icies designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions or to adapt to climate change entail important ad- ditional benefits for human development. The case of rural electrification is a clear example of a con- tingent initiative, but also one that requires innova- tion and capacity building at multiple levels, from viable business models, to training local operation and maintenance staff in problem solving. 4.2 Advanced versus developing countries The tension between advanced and developing countries with regard to the development of ena- bling technologies and capacity building for their global diff usion is particularly challenging. Dis- cussion of this question is part of much broader issues in the climate change policy debate. The discussion of emission reductions and associated technology initiatives at the global level has been paralysed for more than a decade. Since the es- tablishment of the UNFCCC in 1992, many de- veloped countries have instituted programmes to reduce their GHG emissions, although a political consensus for adequate action on low-carbon tech- nology development and deployment is still lack- ing. 22 While developing countries have also started taking tentative steps to manage their GHG emis- sions, they continue to rise, especially given the economic growth of these countries in recent years. 23 Consequently, as highlighted in Chapter 1, we are far from the mitigating action needed to avoid dangerous climate change (Kartha & Er- ickson, 2011; UNEP, 2010). Tackling the climate LOW-CARBON INNOVATION AND DEVELOPMENT 75
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problem will require a significant reorientation of human and economic activities. Transforming the present energy system and technology paradigms will incur enormous costs. According to IEA esti-mates, achieving the 2 °C scenario would require a further investment of USD 36 trillion between 2012 and 2050 as compared to a business-as-usual scenario (see IEA ETP, 2012). Table 3 highlights the enormous disparity be- tween developed and developing countries in terms of per capita emissions and access to electricity (as indicated by per capita electricity generation). Not only are the developing countries much poorer, their per capita emissions are substantially lower than those of developed countries. 24 Notwithstanding the recent rise of BRICS coun- tries as major emitters, the resistance of advanced economies to technology transfer derives from concerns over competitiveness. This sentiment is compounded by the growth in BRIC countries’ rising technology competence (albeit still lagging far behind) and investments in their own R&D. Increasing the capacity for the development of low-carbon infrastructure and technology in de- veloping countries is an important part of climate change mitigation. The current expansion of infra- structure in developing countries is a process that is likely to continue in the coming decades. Because of the desirability of minimising high -carbon in-
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